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Japanese luxury vehicle brand owned by Toyota

Lexus (レクサス, Rekusasu) is the luxury vehicle division of the Japanese automaker Toyota. The Lexus brand is marketed in more than 70 countries and territories worldwide[3] and is Japan's largest-selling make of premium cars. It has ranked among the 10 largest Japanese global brands in market value.[4] Lexus is headquartered in Nagoya, Japan. Operational centers are located in Brussels, Belgium, and Plano, Texas, United States.

Created at around the same time as Japanese rivals Honda and Nissan created their Acura and Infiniti luxury divisions respectively, Lexus originated from a corporate project to develop a new premium sedan, code-named F1, which began in 1983 and culminated in the launch of the Lexus LS in 1989.[5] Subsequently, the division added sedan, coupé, convertible and SUV models. Lexus did not exist as a brand in its home market until 2005, and all vehicles marketed internationally as Lexus from 1989 to 2005 were released in Japan under the Toyota marque and an equivalent model name. In 2005, a hybrid version of the RX crossover debuted and additional hybrid models later joined the division's lineup. Lexus launched its own F marque performance division in 2007 with the debut of the IS F sport sedan, followed by the LFA supercar in 2009.

Lexus vehicles are largely produced in Japan, with manufacturing centered in the Chūbu and Kyūshū regions, and in particular at Toyota's Tahara, Aichi, Chūbu and Miyata, Fukuoka, Kyūshū plants. Assembly of the first Lexus produced outside the country, the Canadian-built RX 330, began in 2003. Following a corporate reorganization from 2001 to 2005, Lexus began operating its own design, engineering and manufacturing centers.

Since the 2000s, Lexus has increased sales outside its largest market, the United States. The division inaugurated dealerships in the Japanese domestic market in 2005, becoming the first Japanese premium car marque to launch in its country of origin.[6] The brand has since debuted in Southeast Asia, Latin America, Europe and other regions, and has introduced hybrid vehicles in many markets.


1980s: The F1 project[edit]

The Lexus brand was created around the same time as Japanese rivals Nissan and Honda developed their Infiniti and Acura premium brands. The Japanese government imposed voluntary export restraints for the U.S. market, so it was more profitable for Japanese automakers to export more expensive cars to the U.S.

In 1983, Toyota chairman Eiji Toyoda issued a challenge to build the world's best car.[7] The project, code-named F1 (“Flagship One”)[8] developed the Lexus LS 400 to expand Toyota's product line in the premium segment.[9] The F1 project followed the Toyota Supra sports car and the premium Toyota Mark II models.[10] Both the Supra and Mark II were rear-wheel drive cars with a powerful 7M-GE or 7M-GTE inline-six engine. The largest sedan Toyota built at the time was the limited-production, 1960s-vintage Toyota Century, a domestic, hand-built limousine, and V8-powered model,[11] followed by the inline-six-engined Toyota Crown premium sedan.[11][12] The Century was conservatively styled for the Japanese market and along with the Crown not slated for export after a restyle in 1982.[12] The F1 designers targeted their new sedan at international markets and began development on a new V8 engine.[11][12]

Japanese manufacturers exported more expensive models in the 1980s due to voluntary export restraints negotiated by the Japanese government and U.S. trade representatives that restricted mainstream car sales.[13] In 1986, Honda launched its Acura marque in the U.S., influencing Toyota's plans for a luxury division.[14] The initial Acura model was an export version of the Honda Legend, itself launched in Japan in 1985 as a rival to the Toyota Crown, Nissan Cedric/Gloria and Mazda Luce.[15] In 1987, Nissan unveiled its plans for a premium brand, Infiniti,[16] and revised its Nissan President sedan in standard wheelbase form for export as the Infiniti Q45, which it launched in 1990.[17]Mazda began selling the Luce as the Mazda 929 in North America in 1988 and later began plans to develop an upscale marque to be called Amati, but its plans did not come to fruition.[16]

Toyota researchers visited the U.S. in May 1985 to conduct focus groups and market research on luxury consumers.[18] During that time, several F1 designers rented a home in Laguna Beach, California, to observe the lifestyles and tastes of American upper class consumers.[18] Meanwhile, F1 engineering teams conducted prototype testing on locations ranging from the German autobahn to U.S. roads.[19] Toyota's market research concluded that a separate brand and sales channel were needed to present its new sedan, and plans were made to develop a new network of dealerships in the U.S. market.[20]

Brand development[edit]

In 1986, Toyota's longtime advertising agency Saatchi & Saatchi formed a specialized unit, Team One, to handle marketing for the new brand.[14] Image consulting firm Lippincott & Margulies was hired to develop a list of 219 prospective names; Vectre, Verone, Chaparel, Calibre and Alexis were chosen as top candidates.[21] While Alexis quickly became the front runner, concerns were raised that the name applied to people more than cars (being associated with the Alexis Carrington character on the popular 1980s prime time drama Dynasty).[21][22] As a result, the first letter was removed and the "i" replaced with a "u" to morph the name to Lexus.[22]

Front quarter view of a sedan parked on a street.
1989 LS 400sedan was the first Lexus model.

Theories of the etymology of the Lexus name have suggested it is the combination of the words "luxury" and "elegance,"[23] and that it is an acronym for "luxury exports to the U.S."[23] According to Team One interviews, the brand name has no specific meaning and simply denotes a luxurious and technological image.[21] Prior to the release of the first vehicles, database service LexisNexis obtained a temporary injunction forbidding the name Lexus from being used because it might cause product confusion.[24] The injunction threatened to delay the division's launch and marketing efforts.[24] The U.S. appeals court lifted the injunction, deciding that there was little likelihood of confusion between the two products.[24]

The original Lexus slogan, developed after Team One representatives visited Lexus designers in Japan and noted an obsessive attention to detail, became "The Relentless Pursuit of Perfection."[25] Three firms were involved in the final phase of logo development: Saatchi & Saatchi, Molly Designs and Hunter/Korobkin, Inc.[26] The finished logo was a combination of two firms’ final designs: the Lexus logo typeface came from Saatchi & Saatchi and the “L” was Hunter/Korobkin, Inc.’s design. According to Toyota, the automaker made some refinements so the logo would be easier to manufacture, rendering it using a mathematical formula.[27][21] The first teaser ads featuring the Lexus name and logo appeared at the Chicago, Los Angeles and New York auto shows in 1988.[28]


The F1 project was completed in 1989, involving 60 designers, 24 engineering teams, 1,400 engineers, 2,300 technicians, 220 support workers, approximately 450 prototypes and more than $1 billion in costs.[29] The resulting car, the Lexus LS 400, had a design that shared no major elements with previous Toyota vehicles, with a new 4.0 L V8gasoline engine and rear-wheel drive.[30][31] The car debuted in January 1989 at the North American International Auto Show in Detroit[16] and official sales of the vehicle began the following September at a network of 81 new Lexus dealerships in the U.S.[32] The LS 400 was sold along with the smaller ES 250, a rebadged version of the Japanese market Toyota Camry Prominent/Toyota Vista.[19] The launch of Lexus was accompanied by a multimillion-dollar advertising campaign.[33]

Front quarter view of a coupe.
1991 SC 400was the third Lexus model and first coupe.

The LS 400 was praised for its quietness, well-appointed and ergonomic interior, engine performance, build quality, aerodynamics, fuel economy and value.[19][34] However, it was criticized by some automobile columnists for derivative styling and a suspension regarded as too compromising of handling for ride comfort.[19][35] In some 2020 jaguar f pace trim levels it was priced against mid-size, six-cylinder Mercedes-Benz and BMW models.[36] It was rated by Car and Driver magazine as better than the higher-priced Mercedes-Benz 420 SEL and BMW 735i in terms of ride, handling and performance.[37] The LS 400 also won motoring awards from automotive publications including Automobile Magazine and Wheels Magazine.[38][39] Lexus quickly established customer loyalty and its debut was generally regarded as a shock to existing luxury marques. BMW's and Mercedes-Benz's U.S. sales figures dropped 29 percent and 19 percent, respectively, with BMW executives accusing Lexus of dumping in that market, while 35 percent of Lexus buyers traded in a Lincoln or Cadillac.[37]

In December 1989, Lexus initiated a voluntary recall of all 8,000 LS 400s based upon two customer complaints over defective wiring and an overheated brake light.[37] A 20-day 2020 jaguar f pace trim levels to replace the parts on affected vehicles included technicians to pick up, repair and return cars to customers free of charge, and also flying personnel and renting garage space for owners in remote locations.[37] This response was covered in media publications and helped establish the marque's early reputation for customer service.[40][41]

By the end of 1989, a total of 16,392 LS 400 and ES 250 sedans were sold in the four months following the U.S. launch.[42] Although sales had begun at a slower pace than expected, the final tally matched the division's target of 16,000 units for that year.[43] Following initial models, plans called for the addition of a sports coupe along with a redesigned ES sedan.[44]

1990s: Growth and expansion[edit]

Front quarter view of an SUV.
1998 RX 300, first Lexus crossover SUV

In 1990, during its first full year of sales, Lexus sold 63,594 LS 400 and ES 250 sedans in the U.S.,[45] the majority being the LS model.[45] That year, Lexus also began limited exports to the United Kingdom, Switzerland, Canada and Australia.[19][46] In 1991, Lexus launched its first sports coupe, the SC 400, which shared the LS 400s V8 engine and rear-wheel drive design.[44] This was followed by the second generation ES 300 sedan, which succeeded the ES 250 and became Lexus' top seller.[44] At the conclusion of 1991, Lexus had become the top-selling premium car import in the U.S.,[47][48] with sales reaching 71,206 vehicles.[45] That year, Lexus ranked highest in J.D. Power and Associates' studies on initial vehicle quality, customer satisfaction and sales satisfaction for the first time.[49] The marque also began increasing U.S. model prices past those of comparable American premium makes, but still below high-end European models.[48] By 1992, the LS 400's base price had risen 18 percent.[50]

In 1993, Lexus launched the mid-size GS 300 sports sedan, based on the Toyota Aristo using the Toyota "S" platform from the Toyota Crown, which had sold for two years prior in Japan.[44] The GS 300 was priced below the LS 400 in the marque's lineup.[51] That same year, Lexus became one of the first marques to debut a certified pre-owned program, with the aim of improving trade-in model values.[52] The marque introduced the second generation LS 400 in 1994.[53] In May 1995, sales were threatened by the U.S. government's proposal of 100 percent tariffs on upscale Japanese cars in response to the widening U.S.-Japan trade deficit.[54] SUVs were exempt from the proposed sanctions.[55] Normal sales operations resumed by late 1995 when the Japanese auto manufacturers collectively agreed to greater American investments and the tariffs were not enacted.[54]

Front quarter view of a sedan.
ES 300was the best-selling Lexus sedan in the 1990s.

In 1996, Lexus debuted its first sport utility vehicle, the LX 450,[56] followed by the third generation ES 300 sedan, and the second generation GS 300 victoria secret pink reversible sherpa jacket GS 400 sedans in 1997. The marque's plans for developing an SUV model had accelerated during the U.S.-Japan tariff discussions of 1995.[55] Lexus added the first luxury-branded crossover SUV, the RX 300 in 1998. The RX crossover targeted suburban buyers who desired an upmarket SUV but did not need the LX's off-road capability.[57] It was particularly successful, eventually becoming the marque's top-selling model ahead of the ES sedan.[57] The same year, Lexus made its debut in South America's most populous country when it launched sales in Brazil.[58][59] In 1999, the IS was introduced, an entry-level sport sedan. Lexus also recorded its 1 millionth vehicle sold in the U.S. market,[47] being ranked as the top-selling premium car maker in the U.S. overall.[57]

2000s: Global reorganization[edit]

Front quarter view of an SUV parked next to a beach.
2004 RX 400h, first hybrid version of Lexus' best-selling vehicle

In July 2000, Lexus introduced the IS 300 in North America, following global launch in 1999 (as the IS 200) and the third generation LS 430. In 2001, the first convertible was introduced, as well as the SC 430 and a redesigned ES 300.[60] The GX 470 mid-size SUV debuted in 2002, followed by the second generation RX 330 in 2003.[61] The following year, Lexus recorded its 2 millionth U.S. vehicle sale,[62][63] and the first luxury-branded production hybrid SUV, the RX 400h.[64] This vehicle used Toyota's Hybrid Synergy Drive system that combined gasoline and electric motors.[65]

In 2005, Lexus completed an organizational separation from parent company Toyota,[66] with mobile homes for sale under 5000 in south carolina design, engineering, training, and manufacturing centers working exclusively for the division.[67][68] This effort coincided with Lexus' launch in its home market of Japan and an expanded global launch of the brand in markets such as China.[68][69] Executives aimed to increase Lexus sales outside of its largest market in the U.S.[68][70] To accompany this expansion, next generation Lexus vehicles were redesigned as "global models" for international release.[71] In the European market, where Lexus had long faced struggling sales owing to low brand recognition, few dedicated dealerships, and 1990s import quotas,[72][73] the marque announced plans to introduce hybrid and diesel powertrains,[74] increase the number of Lexus dealerships, and expand operations in emerging markets such as Russia.[75][76]

Front quarter view of a sedan.
2006 Lexus IS, second generation with F marque variant in 2007

Lexus' arrival in the Japanese market in July 2005 marked the first introduction of a Japanese premium car marque in the domestic market.[6] New generation LS, IS, ES, GS, and RX models subsequently became available in Japan along with the SC 430, ending domestic sales of Toyota-branded models under the Celsior, Altezza, Windom, Aristo, Harrier, and Soarer nameplates, respectively. The Altezza and Aristo were previously exclusive to Japanese Toyota retail sales channels called Toyota Vista Store, the Windom was exclusive to Toyota Corolla Store, the Celsior and Harrier were exclusive to Toyopet Store, and the Soarer was previously available at both Toyota Store and Toyopet Store locations.[77][78] Lexus models sold in Japan featured higher specifications and a price premium compared with their discontinued Toyota counterparts.[77] Sales for the first half-year were slower than expected,[79] affected by the contraction of the domestic auto market and price increases,[80] but improved in subsequent months with an expanded lineup.[80][81]

Through the mid-2000s, Lexus experienced sales successes in South Korea and Taiwan, becoming the top-selling import make in both markets in 2005;[82][83] the marque also sold well in the Middle East, where it ranked first or second among rivals in multiple countries,[84] and in Australia, where Lexus reached third in luxury car sales in 2006.[85][86] Division executives in 2006 announced an expansion goal from 68 countries to 76 worldwide by 2010.[87] By the end of the decade, this expansion resulted in official launches in Malaysia and South Africa in 2006,[88][89] Indonesia in 2007,[90] Chile in 2008,[91][92] and the Philippines in 2009.[93]

Hybrids and F models[edit]

In 2006, Lexus began sales of the GS 450h, a V6 hybrid performance sedan,[94] and launched the fourth generation LS line, comprising both standard- and long-wheelbase V8 (LS 460 and LS 460 L) and hybrid (LS 600h and LS 600h L) versions.[95] The fifth generation ES 350 also debuted in the same year. The LS 600h L subsequently went on sale as the most expensive sedan ever produced in Japan.[96] By the end of 2006, Lexus' annual sales had reached 475,000 vehicles worldwide.[97] In January 2007, Lexus announced a new F marque performance division, which would produce racing-inspired versions of its performance models. The IS F, made its debut at the 2007 North American International Auto Show,[98] accompanied by a concept car, the LF-A.

Front quarter view of a sedan.
2006 GS 450h, first rear-wheel-drive hybrid

In October 2007, Lexus entered the Specialty Equipment Market Association show in the U.S. for the first time with the IS F, and announced its F-Sport performance trim level and factory-sanctioned accessory line.[99] Increased emphasis on sporty models was an effort to target rivals from Mercedes-Benz's AMG and BMW's M divisions.[98][100] Models such as the SC 400 and GS 400 had received favorable reactions from sport luxury buyers,[101] most Lexus models had been characterized as favoring comfort over sporty road feel and handling, compared with European rivals.[102] By the end of 2007, Lexus annual worldwide sales had surpassed 500,000 vehicles,[103] and the marque ranked as the top-selling premium import in China for the first time.[104] The largest sales markets in order of size for 2007 were the U.S., Japan, the UK, China, Canada, and Russia.[97][105]

In 2008, amidst the late-2000s recession and a weakened world car market, global sales fell 16 percent to 435,000,[106][107][108] with declines in markets such as the U.S. and Europe where deliveries fell by 21 percent and 27.5 percent, respectively.[109][110] In 2009, the marque launched the HS 250h,[111] a dedicated hybrid sedan for North America and Japan, the RX 450h, the second generation hybrid SUV replacing the earlier RX 400h, and later that year debuted the US$375,000 production LFA exotic coupe.[112] In late 2009, citing higher sales of hybrid models over their petrol counterparts,[113][114] Lexus announced plans to become a hybrid-only marque in Europe.[115] By the end of the decade, Lexus ranked as the fourth-largest premium car make in the world by volume,[116] and was the number one selling premium car marque in the U.S. for 10 consecutive years.[108][116][117]

2010s–2020s: Recent developments[edit]

In 2010, Lexus underwent a gradual sales recovery in North America and Asia as the marque focused on adding hybrids and new model derivatives.[84] Sales in the U.S. held steady despite the 2009–2010 Toyota vehicle recalls, several of which included Lexus models.[118] The ES 350 and certain IS models were affected by a recall for potentially jamming floor mats,[118] while parent company Toyota bore the brunt of negative publicity amid investigations over its series of product recalls and problem rates per-vehicle.[118][119] The redesigned GX 460 was also voluntarily recalled in April 2010 for a software update, one week after Consumer Reports issued a recommendation not to buy the SUV, citing a possible rollover risk following the slow stability control response to a high-speed emergency turn.[120] Although the publication knew of no reported incidents, the GX 460 received updated stability control software.[120]

In late 2010 and early 2011, Lexus began sales of the CT 200h, a compact four-door hybrid hatchback designed for Europe, in multiple markets.[121][122] Sales of lower-displacement regional models were also expanded, beginning with the ES 240 in China followed by the RX 270; Japan, Russia, and Taiwan were among markets which received model variants intended for reduced emissions or import taxes.[123][124] In March 2011, the Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami caused severe disruption to Lexus' Japan-based production lines, hindering the marque's near-term sales prospects.[125] Lexus' U.S. executives stated that due to vehicle shortages amidst close competition from BMW, Mercedes-Benz, and Audi, the marque would not remain the country's top-selling premium car brand.[125]

Front quarter view of a hatchback.
2010 CT 200h, first Lexus hatchback

Cumulative sales results for 2011 indicated a 14 percent sales drop in the U.S. market,[126] along with sales increases of 40 percent and 27 percent in Europe www bbt com checks Japan respectively,[127][128] for a global sales total of 410,000 units.[129] Lexus' streak of 11 consecutive years as the best-selling luxury marque in the U.S. ended that year, with the title going to BMW followed by Mercedes-Benz.[130] While 45 percent of Lexus sales in the U.S. in 2011 relied upon the RX luxury crossover SUV, rival Mercedes-Benz's best-selling offering was the E-Class mid-luxury sedan, which commands considerably higher prices.[131] Subsequently, Toyota chairman Akio Toyoda vowed to restore passion to the marque and further increase its organizational independence, admitting that ".back then we did not regard Lexus as a brand, but as a distribution channel". As a result of Toyoda's organizational changes, Lexus senior managers report directly to the chairman for the first time in the marque's history.[130][131]

In January 2012, the marque began sales of the fourth generation GS line, including GS 350 and GS 450h variants, as well as a lower-displacement GS 250 model for select markets.[132] In April 2012, the sixth generation ES line, including ES 350 and ES 300h variants, debuted at the New York International Auto Show.[133]

In April 2014, Lexus unveiled the five-seater NX crossover. The vehicle features a very first for a Lexus vehicle: a turbocharger. Its nomenclature is denoted as the 200t. In August 2014, Toyota announced it would be cutting its Lexus spare parts prices in China by up to 35 percent. The company admitted the move was in response to a probe foreshadowed earlier in the month by China's National Development and Reform Commission of Lexus spare parts policies, as part of an industry-wide investigation into what the Chinese regulator considers exorbitantly high prices being charged by automakers for spare parts and after-sales servicing.[134]

In March 2016, Lexus announced that it will be producing a new flagship vehicle: the two-door LC 500. The vehicle will be produced for late 2017 in a V8 version putting out 467 horsepower. The LC 500h, a V6 hybrid variant, could potentially become available in late 2017 or early 2018.

In April 2019, Lexus announced that a rebadged limousine version of the third-generation Alphard would be sold as the Lexus LM.[135] It was also announced that Lexus would finally enter the market in Mexico in 2021 with some of the vehicles in their lineup.[136] In October 2019, Lexus announced that it will be launching the brand's first all-battery electric vehicle in 2020.[137]

Corporate affairs[edit]

Regional sales, 2011 Units
United States[126]198,552
Type production, 2010 Units
Passenger vehicles205,070
Crossover SUVs159,560
Hybrid vehicles66,226
Line production, 2010 Units
Japan production[139]283,012
Canada production[140]81,618


Lexus International, headed by managing officer Tokuo Fukuichi, coordinates the worldwide operations of Toyota's luxury division.[141][142] Other executives at Lexus' global headquarters, located in Nagoya, Aichi,[143] include Mark Templin, executive vice president of Lexus International,[141] and managers of the marque's Japan Sales and Marketing and global Product and Marketing Planning state bank of cross plains While organizationally separate from its parent company, Lexus International reports directly to Toyota chief executive officer Akio Toyoda.[129]

In the U.S., Lexus operations are headed by David Christ, group vice president and general manager of the U.S. Lexus division, located in Plano, Texas.[145] In Europe, Lexus operations are headed by Alain Uyttenhoven, vice president of Lexus Europe, located in Brussels.[146] Companion design facilities are located in Southern California[147] and central Japan,[148] with the head design studio devoted entirely to Lexus models in Toyota City, Aichi.[148][149]

Lexus sales operations vary in structure by region. In many markets, such as the U.S., the dealership network is a distinct organization from corporate headquarters,[125] with separately owned and operated Lexus showrooms.[150] By contrast, in Japan all 143 dealerships in the country are owned and operated by Lexus.[80] Several markets have a designated, third party regional distributor; for example, in the United Arab Emirates, sales operations are managed by Al-Futtaim Motors LLC,[84] and in Costa Rica, Lexus vehicles are sold via regional distributor Purdy Motors S.A.[151] Other officially sanctioned regional distributors have sold Lexus models prior to the launch of, or in absence of, a dedicated dealership network.[89]

The Lexus brand launched in the Indian market in 2017,[152] with the models RX450h, LX450d, LX570, ES300h,[153]NX, LS.[154] Dealerships in Mumbai, Delhi, Gurgaon, and Bangalore became operational in March 2017, when the brand began sales in India with a second set of dealerships opening in Chandigarh, Kochi, and Chennai toward the end of 2017.[153] This made Lexus the fifth luxury brand to be launched in India, after Mercedes-Benz, Porsche, BMW, and Audi.


Global sales of Lexus vehicles reached an all-time high in 2007, with a total of 518,000. Sales decreased in subsequent years due to the effects of the 2008 recession and the Japanese tsunami of 2011. Following this, sales recovered and reached a new high of 523,000 in 2013.[155]

In 2014, the Lexus brand set a new global sales record after selling 582,000 vehicles. This made Lexus the fourth best selling luxury brand in the world, trailing BMW, Audi and Mercedes-Benz.[156]

Rectangular windowed building, with landscaping and a sign in front labeled 'Lexus'.
Fuji Lexus College, training facility for dealers in Shizuoka, Japan

Global sales of Lexus vehicles increased by 12 percent in 2015 to reach another annual sales record with 652,000 units sold worldwide.[157]

Global cumulative sales of Lexus brand hybrid electric cars reached the 500,000 mark in November 2012.[158] The 1 million sales milestone was achieved in March 2016.[159] The Lexus RX 400h/RX 450h ranks as the top selling Lexus hybrid with 335,000 units delivered worldwide as of March 2016[update], followed by the Lexus CT 200h with 267,000 units.[159]

Lexus has not sold as well in Europe, where it suffers from smaller brand recognition, image, and a less-developed dealership network.[160] In European markets, the Lexus LS has ranked behind Jaguar, Mercedes-Benz, Audi, and BMW in flagship luxury car sales.[161] Automotive analysts have suggested a possible rationale for the sales disparity, in that European buyers place less emphasis on 2020 jaguar f pace trim levels reliability and have more brand loyalty to established domestic marques.[160] In contrast, the Lexus LS has ranked second in sales to the Mercedes-Benz S-Class (and ahead of rivals from BMW, Audi, and Jaguar) in markets outside Europe, such as South Africa.[162]

Currently all of Lexus's models for the US market are imported from Japan, with the exception of the RX, which is also produced in Cambridge, Ontario for North America, and the ES, which is also produced in Georgetown, Kentucky. The RX midsized crossover is Lexus's best selling model in the United States, while the ES mid-sized car is the most popular sedan in the line-up.

Calendar Year Europe[163]US (Market share %)[164]
2017 44,944 Decrease305,229 (Decrease1.77)
2016 44,287 Decrease331,228 (Decrease1.89)
2015 39,255 Increase344,601 (Increase1.97)
2014 31,479 Increase311,389 (Increase1.88)
2013 23,708 Increase273,847 (Increase1.76)
2012 26,820 Increase244,162 pnc online sign in page alt="Increase" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b0/Increase2.svg/11px-Increase2.svg.png" width="11" height="11">1.68)
2011 27,442 Decrease198,552 (Decrease1.55)
2010 19,185 Increase229,329 (Decrease1.98)
2009 20,629 Decrease215,975 (Increase2.07)
2008 29,682 Decrease260,087 (Decrease1.96)
2007 40,496 Increase329,177 (Increase2.07)
2006 40,337 Increase322,434 (Decrease1.95)
2005 23,340 Increase302,895 (Increase2.04)
2004 21,122 Increase287,927 (Increase1.70)
2003 18,318 Increase259,755 (Increase1.56)
2002 19,435 Increase234,109 (Increase1.40)
2001 21,357 Increase223,983 (Increase1.30)
2000 17,214 Increase206,037 (Increase1.20)
1999 15,800 Increase185,890 (Increase1.10)
1998 6,938 Increase156,260 (Increase1.00)
1997 3,408 Increase97,563 (Increase0.60)
1996 Decrease81,529 (Steady0.50)
1995 Decrease83,616 (Decrease0.50)
1994 Decrease91,554 (Decrease0.58)
1993 Increase99,280 (Decrease0.64)
1992 Increase92,890 (Increase0.69)
1991 Increase71,206 (Increase0.58)
1990 Increase63,534 (Increase0.46)
1989 Increase16,302 (Increase0.11)
1988 0 (0.00)

Financial performance[edit]

Financial data of Lexus operations are not disclosed publicly.[165] However, automotive analysts estimate that the Lexus division contributes a disproportionate share of Toyota's profits, relative to its limited production and sales volume.[165] Interviews with retired division officials indicate that depending on sales volume, vehicle product development cycles, and exchange rates, Lexus sales have accounted for as much as half of Toyota's annual U.S. profit in certain years.[165] Division executives have employed pricing strategies aimed at sustaining profit margins rather than sales volume, with historically fewer price incentives than rival brands.[165] In 2006, Lexus entered Interbrand's list of the Top 100 Global Brands for the first time, with an estimated brand value of approximately $3 billion annually.[166] In 2009, Interbrand ranked Lexus as Japan's seventh largest brand, between Panasonic and Nissan, based on revenue, earnings, and market value.[4]


Vehicle lineup[edit]

Further information: List of Lexus vehicles

The global Lexus lineup features sedans of different size classes, including the compactIS model, mid-sizeES and GS models, and the full-sizeLS. The 2-door coupe range consists of the RC and the LC. Former convertibles include the SC and IS C models. Sport-utility vehicles range in size from the subcompact UX, compact NX and mid-size RX crossovers, to the full-size GX and LX. Hybrid models include the CT hatchback, the discontinued HS, and variants of the IS, ES, GS, LS, RC, LC, UX, NX, RX and LM.[167] The F marque line formerly produced a variant of the IS and the LFA and currently produces a variant of the GS sedan and the RC coupe.[167]

F marque[edit]

Further information: Lexus F and Lexus F-Sport

Lexus produces its highest-performance models under its F marque division.[98] The name refers to Flagship and Fuji Speedway in Japan, whose first corner, 27R, inspired the shape of the "F" emblem.[168] F marque models are developed by the Lexus Vehicle Performance Development Division.[169] The first F marque model, the IS F, went on sale in 2007, followed by the LFA in 2009.[112] A related F-Sport performance trim level and factory-sanctioned accessory line is available for standard Lexus models such as the IS 250 and IS 350.[99] The F-Sport trim level commonly includes cosmetic upgrades to the exterior and interior, and in some vehicles, mechanical upgrades such as an adaptive variable suspension.[170][171] F-Sport succeeded an earlier in-house tuning effort, the TRD-based L-Tuned, which had offered performance packages on the IS and GS sedans in the early 2000s (decade).[172][173]

Additions to the performance F Sport marque include the Lexus RC F Sport and Lexus GS F Sport and Lexus LS F Sport.[174]

Model nomenclature[edit]

Lexus production models are named alphanumerically using two-letter designations followed by three digits. The first letter indicates relative status in the Lexus model range (ranking),[175] and the second letter refers to car body style or type[175] (e.g. LS for 'luxury sedan'). The three digits commonly indicate engine displacement in liters multiplied by a factor of one hundred (e.g. 350 for a 3.5 L engine),[175] except in the case of turbocharged and hybrid vehicles, for which the digits correspond to the displacement of a naturally aspirated engine with equivalent output (on hybrids, the three digits refer to the combined gasoline-electric output).[65][176][177] A space is used between the letters and numbers. The same letter may be used differently depending on the model; 'S' can refer to 'sedan'[175] or 'sport'[78] (e.g. in LS and SC), while 'X' refers to 'luxury utility vehicle' or SUV.[175][178] For certain models, a lower case letter placed after the alphanumeric designation indicates powerplant type ('h' for hybrid, 'd' for diesel, 't' for turbocharged),[113] while capital letter(s) placed at the end indicates a class subtype (e.g. 'L' for long-wheelbase,[66] 'C' for coupe, 'AWD' for all-wheel drive). On F marque models, the two-letter designation and the letter 'F' are used with no numbers or hyphens (e.g. IS F).[113]

Design and technology[edit]

Lexus design has traditionally placed an emphasis on targeting specific vehicle development standards.[179] Since the 2020 jaguar f pace trim levels inception, design targets have ranged from aerodynamics and ride quality to interior ergonomics.[34][180] The backronym "IDEAL" ("Impressive, Dynamic, Elegant, Advanced, and Lasting") is used in the development process.[181] Each vehicle is designed according to approximately 500 specific product standards, known as "Lexus Musts," on criteria such as leather seat stitching.[182][183] Design elements from the marque's concept vehicle line, the LF series (including the 2003 LF-S and 2004 LF-C), have been incorporated in production models.[184][185]

Vehicle cabins have incorporated electroluminescent Optitron gauges,[186] SmartAccess, a smart key entry and startup system,[187] and multimedia features. Beginning with the 2010 RX and HS models, the Remote Touch system, featuring a computer mouse-like controller with haptic feedback, was introduced;[111][188] other models have featured touchscreen controls (through the 2009 model year) as a navigation screen interface.[187] 2014 saw the introduction of the next version of Lexus’ remote-touch innovations—the Remote Touch Interface Touchpad in the new RC Coupe.[189]

In 1989, Lexus became among the first premium car marques to equip models with premium audio systems, in partnership with stereo firm Nakamichi.[190][191] Since 2001, optional surround sound systems are offered via high-end audio purveyor Mark Levinson.[191] For reduced cabin noise, the first LS 400 introduced sandwich steel plating,[186] and later models added acoustic glass.[192] In 2006, the LS 460 debuted the first ceiling air diffusers and infrared body temperature sensors in a car.[193][194]Telematics services include G-Book with G-Link in Asia and Lexus Enform in North America.[195]

Cutaway car transmission, with exposed gears and internal machinery.
Eight-speed automatic transmission in the IS F and LS 460 Sport

In 2006, Lexus incorporated the first production eight-speed automatic transmission in an automobile with the LS 460,[193] and the gearbox was later adapted for the GS 460 and IS F models. Continuously variable transmissions, regenerative brakes, and electric motors have been used on all Lexus hybrid models.[65] In 2007, Lexus executives signaled intentions to equip further models with hybrid powertrains,[113] catering to demands for a decrease in both carbon pollution and oil reliance.[196] Hybrid models have been differentiated by separate badging and lighting technology; in 2008, the LS 600h L became the first production vehicle to use LEDheadlamps.[197]

Safety features on Lexus models range from stability and handling programs (Vehicle Stability Control and Vehicle Dynamics Integrated Management)[198] to backup cameras, swivel headlights, and sonar warning systems. The Lexus Pre-Collision System (PCS) integrates multiple safety systems.[198] In 2007, Lexus introduced the first car safety systems with infrared and pedestrian detection capabilities, lane keep assist, a Driver Monitoring System with facial recognition monitoring of driver attentiveness, and rear pre-collision whiplash protection, as part of the LS 460 PCS.[193] As a safety precaution, Lexus GPS navigation systems in many regions feature a motion lockout when the vehicle reaches a set speed; to prevent distraction, navigation inputs are limited, while voice input and certain buttons are still accessible. This safety feature has attracted criticism because passengers cannot use certain functions when the vehicle is in motion.[199] Pre-2007 models came with a hidden manufacturer override option,[200] and updated European models allow operation in motion.[201]

Cutaway hybrid car showing electrical connections; auto show display backdrop.
2006 LS 600hand LS 600h L in hybrid form

Production models in development have included convertibles, crossovers, and dedicated hybrids.[202][203] Under the F marque, Lexus plans to produce high-performance vehicles with its first expressions being the IS F and the LFA. Lexus officials have also discussed standard production model usage of varying platforms.[204] The LS uses a dedicated platform,[31] while the entry-level Lexus ES had been criticized for being too similar to the Toyota Camry, with which it shared platforms until its sixth generation,[133] in both styling and powertrain design.[205] The Nürburgring test track in Germany has also seen Lexus prototype testing.[206]


See also: Lexus LF

Lexus introduced a new design language known as "L-finesse" in the mid-2000s with its LF series concepts and the 2006 Lexus GS.[207][208] L-finesse is represented by three Japanese kanji characters which translate as "Intriguing Elegance, Incisive Simplicity, and Seamless Anticipation".[208] Design characteristics, including a fastback profile, lower-set grille,[209] and the use of both convex and concave surfaces,[209] are derived from Japanese cultural motifs (e.g. the phrase kirikaeshi in arrowhead shapes).[210] While earlier Lexus models were criticized for reserved and derivative styling, and often mistaken for understated domestic market cars,[209]automotive design analyses described L-finesse as adding a distinctive nature and embrace of Japanese design identity.[207][208] Opinions varied for L-finesse's debut on the GS; Sports Car International's analysis praised the vehicle's in-person appearance;[211]Automobile Magazine criticized the daring of its forward styling,[212] and compared subsequent rival models for design similarities.[213] In 2012, the arrival of the redesigned fourth generation Lexus GS featured the introduction of a spindle-shaped grille design, intended to be used on all forthcoming Lexus models.[143] L-finesse exhibitions were presented at Milan's Salone del Mobile from 2005 through 2009.[214]


Assembly plants[edit]

Car showroom displaying three sedans, the nearest on a glass turntable, in front of a reception counter and windows.
Lexus models produced by the Tahara plant in Aichi, Japan

The first Lexus vehicles were manufactured in 2020 jaguar f pace trim levels Tahara plant, a computerized manufacturing plant in Japan.[167][215] Through the 2000s, most Lexus sedan and SUV production has occurred in Japan at the Tahara plant in Aichi and the Miyata plant in Fukuoka.[70][167] In addition to the Tahara factory, over time Lexus vehicles have been produced at the Miyata plant (Toyota Motor Kyushu) in Miyawaka, Fukuoka; the Higashi-Fuji plant (Kanto Auto Works) in Susono, Shizuoka; and the Yoshiwara plant (Araco, later Toyota Auto Body) in Toyota City, Aichi.[70][167]Front-wheel drive cars, such as the ES and HS, have been produced in the Fukuoka Prefecture.[167] Toyota Motor Kyushu's Kokura plant in Kitakyushu, Fukuoka, which opened in 2008, is a dedicated hybrid production site for hybrid systems used in Lexus models such as the gasoline-electric RX.[216] The North American–market RX 350 (since the 2004 model year) is produced at the Cambridge plant (Toyota Canada, Inc.) in the city of Cambridge, in Ontario, Canada, which is the first Lexus production site located outside Japan. In late 2015, Lexus started to assemble North American-spec ES 350 sedans at the Georgetown plant (TMMK, Inc.).[217] In January 2020, Toyota Kirloskar Motor of India started assembling the ES sedan in its Bidadi plant.

Relative to Toyota models, Lexus vehicles are built according to different quality control standards,[218][219] including more stringent body panel fit tolerances and paint quality requirements.[218][220] Their manufacture involves different assembly lines, molds, welding processes, and manufacturing equipment.[221][222] Lexus plant workers also undergo a more selective screening process.[223][66] Production vehicles are given visual inspections for flaws, individually test-driven at high speeds, and subjected to vibration tests.[218]

TaharaToyota Motor Corp.Tahara, Aichi PrefectureLS, GS, IS, GX, RC, NX
TsutsumiToyota Motor Corp.Toyota City, Aichi PrefectureES
KokuraToyota Motor Kyushu, Inc.Kitakyushu, Fukuoka PrefectureCT, HS, RX
MiyataToyota Motor Kyushu, Inc.Miyawaka, Fukuoka PrefectureES, IS, RX, NX, UX
MotomachiToyota Motor Corp.Toyota City, Aichi PrefectureLFA, LC
Higashi FujiKanto Auto Works, Ltd.Susono, Shizuoka PrefectureSC
YoshiwaraToyota Auto Body Corp.Toyota City, Aichi PrefectureLX
CambridgeToyota Motor Manufacturing CanadaCambridge, OntarioRX, RXh
GeorgetownToyota Motor Manufacturing KentuckyGeorgetown, KentuckyES
BidadiToyota Kirloskar MotorBidadi, KarnatakaES, NX

Quality rankings[edit]

In the 2000s (decade), Consumer Reports named Lexus among the top five most reliable brands in its Annual Car Reliability Surveys of over one million vehicles across the U.S.[224][225]


Lexus has become known for efforts to provide an upscale image, particularly with service provided after the sale. The waiting areas in service departments are replete with amenities, ranging from refreshment bars to indoor putting greens.[226][227] Dealerships typically chase personal credit card number complimentary loaner cars or "courtesy cars" and free car washes,[227] and some have added on-site cafes and designer boutiques.[228][229] Service bays are lined with large picture windows for owners to watch the servicing of their vehicle.[230] In 2005, Lexus also began reserving parking lots at major sporting arenas, entertainment events, and shopping malls, with the only requirement for free entry being the ownership of a Lexus vehicle.[231] An online owner publication, Lexus Magazine,[232] features automotive and lifestyle articles and is published online monthly[233] and on a mobile site.[234]

Since 2002, Lexus has scored consecutive top ratings in the Auto Express[235][236][237] and 76,000-respondent Top Gear customer satisfaction surveys in the UK.[238] Lexus has also repeatedly topped the 79,000-respondent J.D. Power Customer Service Index[239] and Luxury Institute, New York surveys in the U.S.[240] As a result of service satisfaction levels, the marque has one of the highest customer loyalty rates in the industry.[241] To improve customer service, employees are instructed to follow the "Lexus Covenant," the marque's founding promise (which states that "Lexus will treat each customer as we would a guest in our home"),[242] and some dealerships have incorporated training at upscale establishments such as Nordstrom department stores and Ritz-Carlton hotels.[243]


Lexus first entered the motorsport arena in 1999 when its racing unit, Team Lexus,[244] fielded two GS 400 race vehicles in the Motorola Cup North American Street Stock Championship touring car series. In its 1999 inaugural season, Team Lexus achieved its first victory with its sixth race at Road Atlanta.[245] Led by Sports Car Club of America and International Motor Sports Association driver Chuck Goldsborough, based in Baltimore, Maryland,[246] Team Lexus capitalized on the debut of the first generation Lexus IS by entering three IS 300s in the third race of the 2001 Grand-Am Cup season at Phoenix, Arizona.[247] Team Lexus won its first IS 300 victory that year at the Virginia International Raceway.[247] In 2002, Team Lexus' competitive efforts in the Grand-Am Cup ST1 (Street Tuner) class achieved victories in the Drivers' and Team Championships,[245][246] as well as a sweep of the top three finishes at Circuit Mont-Tremblant in Quebec, Canada.[248]

After the release of the Lexus brand in the Japanese domestic market in 2005, Lexus sanctioned the entry of four SC 430 coupes in the Super GT series of the All Japan Grand Touring Car Championship in the GT500 class. In the first race of the 2006 series, an SC 430 took the chequered flag,[249] and drivers André Lotterer and Juichi Wakisaka raced the SC 430 to capture the GT500 championship for that year.[250] In 2007, another SC 430 won the GT500 opening round race.[251] In 2006, Lexus raced a hybrid vehicle for the first time, entering a GS 450h performance hybrid sedan in partnership with Sigma Advanced Racing Development at the 24 Hours of Tokachi race in Hokkaido, Japan.[252] Lexus Canada also entered the GS 450h in 2007's Targa Newfoundland event.[253] In 2009, Lexus Super GT Team SC 430 and IS 350 racers won the GT500 and GT300 championships, respectively.[254]

Lexus' participation in endurance racing further includes the Rolex 24 Hours of Daytona, sanctioned by the Grand American Road Racing Association. After entering the Rolex Sports Car Series in 2004, Lexus has won over 15 Rolex Series event races.[255] In 2005, Lexus was runner-up, and in 2006, it won the championship.[256] Although Toyota has won this race in the past, it was the first time that its luxury arm emerged as the winner. In 2007, six Lexus-powered Daytona prototypes were entered in the Rolex 24 Hours of Daytona event at the Daytona International Speedway. Lexus was a repeat winner of the event, with a Lexus-Riley prototype driven by Scott Pruett, Juan Pablo Montoya, and Salvador Durán of Chip Ganassi Racing finishing first; Lexus-Riley prototypes also took three of the top ten spots.[257] In 2008, Lexus won its third consecutive win at Daytona.[258] For the 2010 season, Lexus departed from the Rolex Sports Car Series, and Ganassi Racing switched to BMW/Dinan engines.[259]

The LF-A prototype also competed on the Nürburgring from 2008 to 2011 in VLN endurance races[260] and in the 24 Hours Nürburgring, also with the IS F.[261] On 14 May 2011, a CT 200h tuned up by Gazoo Racing competed in the Adenauer ADAC Rundstrecken-Trophy, a six-hour endurance race.[262]

3GT Racing, a partnership of Lexus and Paul Gentilozzi, entered two Lexus RC F GT3 at the N.American 2017 WeatherTech SportsCar Championship in the GT Daytona class. Their first win came in the 2018 WeatherTech SportsCar Championship with Dominik Baumann and Kyle Marcelli at Mid-Ohio before winning again with the same pairing at Virginia International Raceway. Lexus finished in 8th in their first season in 2017 in the GT Daytona Manufacturer's Championship. They then improved to 5th in 2018 with the #14 achieving 5th and the #15 getting 10th in the Team's Championship.[citation needed]

For the 2019 WeatherTech SportsCar Championship, the running of the Lexus GT3 cars has been transferred to AIM Vasser Sullivan, which is a debuting partnership, where the driver pairing of Jack Hawksworth and Richard Heistand have currently achieved 2 wins at Mid-Ohio before winning the next race at Belle Isle. As of the result of Lime Rock Park, Lexus are second in the 2019 Manufacturer's Championship and the #12 is third with the #14 in 5th despite that being the winning car.[citation needed]


From its inception, Lexus has been advertised to luxury consumers using specific marketing strategies, with a consistent motif used for the marque's advertisements. Beginning in 1989, television ads were narrated by actor James Sloyan (the voice of "Mr. Lexus" until 2009),[33][263] and accompanied by vehicles that performed unusual stunts onscreen.[264] The first decade of Lexus commercials (1989–99) consisted primarily of disjunctive verbal descriptions, such as "relentless," "pursuit," and "perfection,"[265] while vehicles were used to claim superiority in precision, idling, and interior quiet and comfort on camera.[264] Examples included the champagne glass "Balance" (1989) lane bryant comenity bank payment rolling "Ball Bearing" (1992).[264] In the 2000s (decade), commercials included descriptions of features,[266] or a narration of the events onscreen, and were often targeted at the marque's German competitors.[267] An annual "December to Remember" campaign featured scenes of family members surprising loved ones with the gift of a new Lexus.[268] The marque returned to the champagne glass theme in a 2006 LS 460 spot showing the sedan maneuvering between two stacks of glasses using its self-parking system, and in a 2010 LFA spot showing its engine sound shattering a glass via resonance frequency.[269]

Industry observers have attributed Lexus' early marketing successes to higher levels of perceived quality and lower prices than competitors, which have enabled the marque to attract customers upgrading from mass-market cars.[9][37] A reputation for dependability, bolstered by reliability surveys, also became a primary factor in attracting new customers from rival premium makes.[270][271] Lexus has since grown to command higher price premiums than rival Japanese makes,[272] with new models further increasing in price and reaching the more than $100,000 ultra-luxury category long dominated by rival European marques.[273][274][275]

Automotive analysts have also noted Lexus' relative newcomer status as a marketing challenge for the brand,[276] although some have debated the requirement of a long history.[272][277] European rivals have marketed their decades of heritage and pedigree,[278] whereas Lexus' reputation rests primarily upon its perceived quality and shared history with parent company Toyota.[272] Several analysts have stated that Lexus will have to develop its own heritage over time by highlighting technological innovations and producing substantial products.[97][276]

Lexus' marketing efforts have extended to sporting and charity event sponsorships, including the U.S. Open tennis Grand Slam event from 2005 to 2009, and the United States Golf Association's U.S. Open, U.S. Women's Open, U.S. Senior Open, and U.S. Amateur tournaments since 2007.[279][280] Lexus has organized an annual Champions for Charity golf series in the U.S. since 1989.[281] Endorsement contracts have also been signed with professional athletes Hideki Matsuyama, Andy Roddick, Annika Sörenstam, and Peter Jacobsen.[282]

Since 2008, Lexus providerexpress com optum health run the video website L Studio. Shows on L Studio include Web Therapy.[283]

Lexus unveiled its new "Experience Amazing" tagline in the U.S. in a 60-second advertisement at the February 2017 Super Bowl LI.[284] The new tagline replaced Lexus's previous slogan, "The Pursuit of Perfection".[285]

On 30 March 2018, Lexus premiered a fake partnership with 23 and Me during a spot on Saturday Night Live, for a pretend program that allows buyers to customize vehicles based on their DNA, as an April Fool's Day joke.[286]

Lexus slogans[edit]

  • The Relentless Pursuit of Perfection (1989–2011)
  • The Pursuit of Perfection (2010–2016)
  • Amazing in Motion
  • Experience Amazing (2017–present)

See also[edit]



  1. ^"When was Lexus founded?". Northwest Lexus. 28 September 2018. Archived from the original on 2 July 2021. Retrieved 1 May 2020.
  2. ^Greimel, Hans (4 December 2019). "Chief engineer appointed to lead Lexus". Automotive News Europe. Archived from the original on 28 June 2021. Retrieved 27 December 2019.
  3. ^Wilson, Tom (13 February 2009). "2010 Lexus RX 350 & RX 450h – First Drive". Road & Track. Archived from the original on 10 April 2010. Retrieved 15 May 2010.
  4. ^ ab"Japan's Best Global Brands 2009". Interbrand. 2009. Archived from the original on 23 November 2010. Retrieved 20 September 2010.
  5. ^"A Short History of Japanese Luxury Cars". 28 June 2011. Archived from the original on 28 June 2011. Retrieved 1 May 2020.
  6. ^ ab"Toyota Opens Lexus Dealerships in Japan". CBS News. 30 August 2005.
  7. ^May 2006, p. 43
  8. ^May 2006, p. 42
  9. ^ abPress, Jim (2006). "How Lexus Was Successful in the U.S. (interview)"(WMV). Auto Line Detroit. Archived from the original on 6 February 2006. Retrieved 5 March 2006.
  10. ^White, John (23 October 1989). "New Route for Japanese Cars: Luxury". The Boston Globe.
  11. ^ abcDawson 2004, pp. 6–7, 63
  12. ^ abcLong 2001, pp. 16–21
  13. ^Dawson 2004, pp. xix, 28
  14. ^ abDawson 2004, p. 109
  15. ^"Honda's premium sedan, "Legend"". Sankei Shimbun (in Japanese). 16 July 2010. Archived from the original on 23 July 2010. Retrieved 31 January 2011.
  16. ^ abcDawson 2004, pp. 72, 88, 116
  17. ^"Profile: 1990 Nissan President" (in Japanese). Gazoo. 2011. Archived from the original on 11 August 2004. Retrieved 31 January 2011.
  18. ^ abDawson 2004, pp. 35, 41
  19. ^ abcde"Edmunds.com Lexus Overview". Edmunds.com. Archived from the original on 24 December 2020. Retrieved 23 May 2011.
  20. ^Morgan & Liker 2006, p. 121
  21. ^ abcdMahler 2004, pp. 56–57
  22. ^ abDawson 2004, pp. 111
  23. ^ abNoon, Chris (26 July 2005). "Watanabe's Toyota Rolls Out Lexus In Japan". Forbes. Archived from the original on 28 July 2005. Retrieved 5 June 2008.
  24. ^ abcDawson 2004, pp. 128–30
  25. ^Dawson 2004, pp. 113–14
  26. ^"Molly Designs history, Lexus logo design". Molly Designs. Archived from the original on 11 June 2008.
  27. ^"Symbol of Excellence". Hunter Communications. Hunter Communications. Archived from the original on 11 July 2019. Retrieved 10 July 2019.
  28. ^Dawson 2004, p. 115
  29. ^Dawson 2004, p. 24
  30. ^Dawson 2004, pp. xxi, 69
  31. ^ abMahler 2004, p. 31
  32. ^May 2006, p. 47
  33. ^ abDawson 2004, pp. 117–18
  34. ^ a
Источник: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lexus


The 2022 Mercedes-Benz EQA is a new all-electric crossover SUV that’s based on the regular subcompact GLA-class. As part of Mercedes’s EQ subbrand, which produces fully electric models, the EQA is expected to enter production later this year. Mercedes has only released information on the global model so far but says it is still being considered for entry into the U.S. market. Given the American appetite for luxury SUVs, we think bringing the 2022 EQA here would be a good move. Power comes from an all-electric powertrain that generates 188 horsepower on front-drive models and 268 horses on all-wheel-drive versions, which both source their juice from a battery pack mounted under the floor of the vehicle.

What’s New for 2022?

If the 2022 EQA does in fact make it to American showrooms, it will be an all-new model and the entry point to the company’s electrified SUV offerings.

We expect the EQA’s available trim levels to mirror those of the larger EQC, but we don’t have set pricing just yet. We also don’t know how the EQA will be equipped or what features will be standard or optional, but we’ll find out more closer to the SUV’s on-sale date.

Engine, Transmission, and Performance

Under the hood, the standard EQA250 is powered by 2020 jaguar f pace trim levels single electric motor that generates 188 horsepower and exclusively feeds the front wheels. We’re told there will eventually be a range-optimized EQA as well as an all-wheel-drive configuration with 268 horses. The European version of the front-drive, 188-hp EQA250 that we drove was slowed by its hefty curb weight. While it felt responsive at city speeds, it was considerably more sluggish above 60 mph. Mercedes estimates it’ll accelerate from zero to 62 mph in an unimpressive 8.9 seconds, and its top speed is electronically limited to 99 mph. The more powerful EQA should help offset its mass, but we can’t say whether it’ll change its ride and handling. As it stands, we were unimpressed with the Mercedes’s listless body control, intrusive stability-control system, and numb brake-pedal feel.


Range, Charging, and Battery Life

The EQA will use a 66.5-kWh battery pack to deliver between 200- and 250-miles of driving range. That range figure is important because it means that it can compete with similarly priced rivals such as the Tesla Model 3 sedan and Model Y SUV.

Fuel Economy and Real-World MPG

Once the EPA tests the U.S. version of the EQA, it will provide an efficiency rating in MPGe, which is a miles-per-gallon equivalent for electric vehicles. Once we get one in for testing, we’ll run it on our 75-mph highway route, which is part of our extensive testing regimen, and we can evaluate its real-world efficiency.

Interior, Comfort, and Cargo

Save for a few rose gold accents and other trimmings, the EQA’s interior is essentially identical to the GLA’s. That means five seats with a reasonable amount of cargo space inside the rear hatch. However, Mercedes has slightly raised the cabin floor and the rear cargo floor to package the battery pack. The result is reduced space in both areas, and it means back-seat passengers are forced into a less comfortable seating position than in the regular GLA. We’re not sure how much smaller the cargo hold is, so we don’t know how it’ll affect luggage capacity. We managed to fit six carry-on suitcases behind the GLA250’s rear seat. That total jumped to 16 bags of luggage 2020 jaguar f pace trim levels the seatbacks stowed.


Infotainment and Connectivity

Mercedes-Benz’s newest MBUX infotainment system will be on hand inside the EQA. It will offer a touchscreen, voice command, and steering-wheel controls for its audio, navigation, and other functions. We’ve found this new interface to be frustrating to use at times, particularly its overly enthusiastic voice assistant that pops up any time you say the word Mercedes. The navigation will likely offer a feature to help drivers more easily find EV charging stations.

Safety and Driver-Assistance Features

We expect the EQA to offer a full suite of driver-assistance features at least as optional extras. Several features are likely to be standard, given the tech-forward nature of this vehicle. For more information about the EQA’s crash-test results, visit the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) websites. Key safety features are likely to include:

  • Standard forward-collision warning and automated emergency braking
  • Available lane-departure warning with lane-keeping assist
  • Available adaptive cruise control

Warranty and Maintenance Coverage

The EQA is likely to offer the same warranty coverage as the EQC and other Mercedes models. Whereas some rivals, such as the Jaguar I-Pace, offer complimentary scheduled maintenance as part of the standard warranty package, EQA buyers will likely need to pay for maintenance out of pocket.

  • Limited warranty covers four years or 50,000 miles
  • Powertrain warranty covers four years or 50,000 miles
  • Hybrid components are covered for eight years or 100,000 miles
  • No complimentary scheduled maintenance
Источник: https://24htech.asia/2022-mercedes-benz-eqa-s126280.html

2017 JaguarF-PACE Pricing and Specs

Compare 10 F-PACE trims and trim families below to see the differences in prices and features.

Trim Family Comparison


View 1 Trims


  • 2.0L I-4 Engine
  • 8-spd auto w/OD Transmission
  • 180 @ 4,000 rpm Horsepower
  • 318 @ 1,750 rpm Torque
  • all wheel Drive type
  • ABS and driveline Traction control
  • 1st and 2nd row exterior express open/close sliding and tilting glass Sunroof
  • 18" silver aluminum Wheels
  • front air conditioning, dual zone automatic
  • AM/FM/HD/Satellite-prep, seek-scan Radio
  • 1st row LCD monitor
  • keyfob (all doors) Remote keyless entry
  • rear Fog/driving lights
  • Heated mirrors
  • Windshield wipers - rain sensing
  • LuxTec leatherette Seat trim

20d Premium

View 1 Trims

Additional or replacing features on 35t

  • 2.0L I-4 Engine
  • 180 @ 4,000 rpm Horsepower
  • 318 @ 1,750 rpm Torque
  • 19" machined w/painted accents aluminum Wheels

20d Prestige

View 1 Trims

Additional or replacing features on 35t Premium

  • 2.0L I-4 Engine
  • 180 @ 4,000 rpm Horsepower
  • 318 @ 1,750 rpm Torque
  • 19" silver aluminum Wheels
  • driver and front passenger heated-cushion, heated-seatback Heated front seats
  • leather Seat trim
  • driver and passenger Lumbar support
  • Navigation system
  • Parking assist

35t Prestige

View 1 Trims

Additional or replacing features on 20d Prestige

  • 3.0L V-6 Engine
  • 340 @ 6,500 rpm Horsepower
  • 332 @ 4,500 rpm Torque

20d R-Sport

View 1 Trims

Additional or replacing features on 35t Prestige

  • 2.0L I-4 Engine
  • 180 @ 4,000 rpm Horsepower
  • 318 @ 1,750 rpm Torque
  • 20" machined w/painted accents aluminum Wheels
  • SiriusXM AM/FM/HD/Satellite, seek-scan Radio
  • front and rear Fog/driving lights

First Edition

View 1 Trims

Additional or replacing features on S

  • 22" painted aluminum Wheels
  • rear air conditioning, with separate controls
  • 2 - 1st row LCD monitor
Show More
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Источник: https://www.autoblog.com/buy/2017-Jaguar-F_PACE/specs/
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The electric flagship, several years in the making, would have gone Mar 09, 2020 · March 9, 2020 – First Electric Jaguar XJ Prototype Prior to today, the only look we’ve had at the electric Jaguar XJ was in test-mule form with a different vehicle equipped with the electric Sep 10, 2019 · Sep 10, 2019. Jaguar's pinnacle saloon car. It will ditch gasoline-powered six- and eight-cylinder engines in favor of electric power, the British company confirmed 2020 Jaguar XJ Reviews and Model Information. S. And it might not be a traditional sedan, either. In an official statement, the brand said: "Although the nameplate may be retained, the planned Jaguar XJ replacement will not capital one auto finance payoff department address part of the line-up, as the The Jaguar XJ might just be the perfect vehicle for your needs. com. COMBINED CO 2 EMISSIONS g/km. Bulletin Summary: Front and rear park aid & park assist unavailable. Mar 16, 2020 · The firm confirmed last year that the XJ will be relaunched in 2020 as an electric model and will be fifth third bank rewards login at its Castle Bromwich plant. The new X300 model - named the XJ6 - was based on the XJ81 chassis and featured New & Used Jaguar XJ for Sale Near Me. Please fill the form out below and our team will quickly respond, or, please call us at (855) 202-3923 for more information. Feb 16, 2021 · Feb 16, 2021. May 04, 2020 · May 7, 2020. New 2020 Jaguar XJ: spy shots and exclusive images – pictures. be/dUv7iD4pu5g 2019 Nov 21, 2019 · The Jaguar XJ Collection is powered by the same 5. and can be configured at www. 2020 jaguar f pace trim levels We reviews the Jaguar Xj New Model 2020 Specs where consumers can find detailed information on specs, fuel economy, transmission and safety. Filter Results. Zero TDI engine that delivers May 30, 2019 · While it’s sad the XJ as we know it will be going the way of the dodo very soon, we can take comfort from knowing a completely new version of Jaguar’s range topper will be unveiled in 2020. 0 (Up to 40. The 2020 Jaguar XJ Review goes to excess the right kinds of excess to preserve its The Jaguar XJ is a series of full-size luxury cars produced by British automobile manufacturer Jaguar Cars (becoming Jaguar Land Rover in 2013) from 1968 to 2019. Feb 15, 2021 · The last XJ rolled off the production line in 2019 and at that point, it was announced that it would not get a direct replacement. COMBINED FUEL ECONOMY l/100km (mpg) From 7. Shop the new inventory at Jaguar Shreveport today to get more information. Speaking with Motor Trend, Thomson described the upcoming sedan as a “stunning car And while the most recent Jaguar XJ was offered with a range of punchy petrol and diesel engines, production ceased in 2019 to make way for an electric luxury flagship model which is expected to wear the famed XJ badge. These trim configurations include: XJ R-Sport - The base trim of the standard wheelbase 2017 Jaguar XJ, the XJ R-Sport trim includes features such as a 340 hp 3. Vous trouverez sans doute votre prochain Jaguar XJ 2020 parmi nos annonces. The perfect combination of cutting-edge technology, sporting vehicle dynamics, and opulent luxury. Jaguar was reluctant The Jaguar XJ might just be the perfect vehicle for your needs. The 2020 Jaguar Xj Redesign handles more like a conventional hatchback than a lot of its SUV rivals; it is genuinely gratifying to drive. 2020 Chevy Silverado 2500 2020 Ford F-Series Super Duty 2020 Mazda CX-9 2020 Hyundai Sonata 2020 Toyota 4Runner Tesla Model Jaguar XJ Price in India 2020: Check out everything about Jaguar XJ price, images, reviews, mileage, color variants, Jaguar XJ starting price - diesel, petrol, cng price and much more on Financial Nov 21, 2019 · 2020 Chevy Silverado 2500 2020 Ford F-Series Super Duty 2020 Mazda CX-9 2020 Hyundai Sonata 2020 Toyota 4Runner Tesla Model 3 Jaguar XJ Collection says goodbye to the Big Cat in LA. Jaguar’s Tesla Model S and Mercedes EQS rival, the all-new and fully electric XJ, was supposed to be unveiled later this year, before going on sale in early 2021. 0L supercharged V6 engine, dual-zone automatic climate control, driver's seat memory, soft grain perforated leather seats Feb 16, 2021 · With Jaguar shifting away from its traditions to become an EV-only brand by 2025, the XJ “will not form part of the lineup”, JLR CEO Thierry Bolloré admitted yesterday. 2020 Jaguar E-PACE. Oct 30, 2018 · Research the Jaguar XJ Series, get expert reviews and local pricing. Jaguar XJ L is priced at ₹ 99. ) – November 19, 2019 – Today Jaguar debuted the final 300 units of Mar 11, 2020 · Jaguar. But then Jaguar reconsidered the decision and began working on a 2020 Jaguar XJ Reviews and Model Information. Sure, Jaguar probably is definitely the manufacturer of typically the vehicle through which each of the cars possessing been unveiled using its title visit the high-class versions. Research, compare, and save listings, or contact sellers directly from 21 XJ models in Atlanta, GA. Every used car for sale comes with a free CARFAX Report. Tweet. Estimated Price Range Jun 24, 2021 · Jaguar decided to restyle its XJ model midway through the 1990s, choosing to go 'retro' in terms of exterior design. Jaguar New Jaguar XJ for Sale in Lynnwood, WA. Jul 08, 2019 · The redesigned XJ is expected to be revealed in 2020 and so far Jaguar has only confirmed battery-electric power, but hybrid powertrains are also expected. GET DIRECTIONS. If you can find an XJ still in stock, list pricing previously started at $165,000. COMBINED CO2 EMISSIONS g/km. Some may really feel the steering is a little bit too light, but it surely’s exact, making the automotive easy to position on the highway. Mar 06, 2019 · We reviews the 2020 Jaguar XJ Price where consumers can find detailed information on specs, fuel economy, transmission and safety. Jaguar Land Rover Limited is constantly seeking ways to improve the specification, design and production of its vehicles, parts, options and/or accessories and alterations take place continually, and we reserve the right to make changes without notice. There’s also a 190 model of the 2. Jaguar’s all-new battery-powered XJ has been spotted wearing its production bodywork. 4)*. Jul 13, 2020 · July 13, 2020. 476 Cars for Sale. Zero Five nights at freddys wiki engine that delivers The 2020 Jaguar XJ release date remains not known for the moment. Jaguar announced the news on the day that production of the May 30, 2019 · While it’s sad the XJ as we know it will be going the way of the dodo very soon, we can take comfort from knowing a completely new version of Jaguar’s range topper will be unveiled in 2020. The current model was launched back in 2010. New Features for 2019. The V-8 produces a stout 470 horsepower and 424 pound-feet of Please contact your local authorized Jaguar Retailer for detailed 2022 model year specifications. Explore the design, performance and technology features of the Jaguar Xj New Model 2020. 00 listings starting at $3,800. 00 Jaguar XJ in Houston, TX 20. The latest model year of the Jaguar XJ brings a new infotainment system featuring greater smartphone connectivity capabilities and a voice command system that connects to your navigation. The perfect-selling 2020 Jaguar Xj Coupe is the 148bhp 2. 0 TDI 150) and it’s easy to see why; it affords a high-quality blend of performance and fuel economic system, whereas the cheaper 115 model (with 113bhp) feels a bit in need of puff. Sort By: Best Match. com (MAHWAH, N. The electric flagship, several years in the making, would have gone Jan 24, 2018 · The next-generation XJ is due to appear in 2019 for the 2020 model year, just after the model's 50th anniversary. In an official statement, the brand said: "Although the nameplate may be retained, the planned Jaguar XJ replacement will not form part of the line-up, as the. 2014 Jaguar XJ electrical system TSB (Bulletin SSM75036) Bulletin Date: Nov. Jaguar has confirmed that the next-generation XJ luxury car will be electric, offering neither gasoline nor diesel engines. jaguar xj 2020

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Skoda Kushaq Overview

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Skoda Kushaq Price

Skoda Kushaq Ex-Showroom price starts at ₹ 10.79 Lakh and goes upto ₹ 18 Lakh. and the On-Road price of Active 1.0 TSI MT is ₹ 20.9 Lakh*. The top variant Skoda Kushaq On-Road price is ₹ 20.9 Lakh*. Skoda offers Kushaq in 7 variants.


Kushaq Active 1.0 TSI MT

₹ 10.79 LakhPetrol, Manual, 17.9 Km/l, 999 CC

Kushaq Ambition 1.0 TSI MT

₹ 12.8 LakhPetrol, Manual, 17.9 Km/l, 999 CC

Kushaq Ambition 1.0 TSI AT

₹ 14.2 LakhPetrol, Automatic, 15.8 Km/l, 999 CC

Kushaq Style 1.0 TSI MT

₹ 14.6 LakhPetrol, Manual, 17.9 Km/l, 999 CC

Kushaq Style 1.0 TSI AT

₹ 15.8 LakhPetrol, Automatic, 15.8 Km/l, 999 Jp morgan chase bank customer service Style 1.5 TSI MT₹ 16.2 LakhPetrol, Manual, 17.9 Km/l, 1498 CC

Kushaq Style 1.5 TSI AT

₹ 18 LakhPetrol, Automatic, 15.8 Km/l, 1498 CC

Skoda Kushaq Price

Active 1.0 TSI MT

Ex-showroom₹ 10,79,000
Insurance₹ 27,312
RTO Amount₹ 1,34,875
TCS₹ 10,790

Ambition 1.0 TSI MT

Ex-showroom₹ 12,79,999
Insurance₹ 32,319
RTO Amount₹ 1,59,999
TCS₹ 1,27,99.99

Ambition 1.0 TSI AT

Ex-showroom₹ 14,19,999
Insurance₹ 35,805
RTO Amount₹ 1,77,499
TCS₹ 1,41,99.99

Style 1.0 TSI MT

Ex-showroom₹ 14,59,999
Insurance₹ 36,801
RTO Amount₹ 1,82,499
TCS₹ 1,45,99.99

Style 1.0 TSI AT

Ex-showroom₹ 15,79,999
Insurance₹ 39,790
RTO Amount₹ 1,97,499
TCS₹ 1,57,99.99

Style 1.5 TSI MT

Ex-showroom₹ 16,19,999
Insurance₹ 42,283
RTO Amount₹ 2,02,499
TCS₹ 1,61,99.99

Style 1.5 TSI AT

Ex-showroom₹ 17,99,999
Insurance₹ 46,932
RTO Amount₹ 2,24,999
TCS₹ 1,79,99.99

Latest Update on Kushaq

The new Skoda Kushaq marks the beginning of a new journey for the German carmaker in our market and will rival the likes of some of the well-established models in its segment like the Hyundai Creta, Kia Seltos and Renault Duster among others. The Skoda Kushaq is also the first model to be spawned by the MQB-AO-IN platform which will underpin a slew of new model of the VW group in India, going forward. It is a localised version of the VW Group's versatile MQB scalable architecture, which has been specifically developed for the Indian market.


The Skoda Kushaq looks sleek and quite handsome, thanks to its macho looks. It largely remains true to the concept version we saw at the 2020 Auto Expo featuring a similar chrome-accented butterfly grille flanked by a set of LED headlamps with LED daytime running lamps, and separate trapezoidal LED foglamps. The SUV also comes with LED taillamps, and Skoda will also be offering the SUV in Honey Orange and Tornado Red colours in India. Other colours include - Candy White, Brilliant Silver, and Carbon Steel. The Skoda Kushaq's the giving keys inc trim line, Active, will come with 16-inch steel wheels and Lhotse full wheel covers. In the Ambition trim level, the Kushaq gets Grus 16-inch alloy wheels, while the style variant will come with 17-inch Atlas two-tone alloys as standard. Courtesy the new platform, the Skoda Kushaq has about 95 per cent of localised content which helps to keep the prices competitive. Now speaking of its dimensions, it is 4225 mm long, 1760 mm wide and has a height of 1612 mm, while its wheelbase is measured at 2651 mm.


The cabin of the SUV is well-balanced and neatly designed, while the all-black scheme is really soothing to the eye. The quality of material used and over finish looks top-notch for the segment and nothing in here looks busy. Going by our review, the seats too are well-bolstered offering decent lumbar and side support, while the cushioning is well balanced as well. Skoda has also used piano black finish and brushed chrome in a minimalist manner, adding very subtly to its appeal. Then, the Skoda Kushaq offers plenty of space for five occupants and it comes with a boot capacity of 385-litres.


Now the Skoda Kushaq is quite impressive when it comes to creature comforts. It gets a 10-inch infotainment system with Apple CarPlay, Android Auto, and wireless MirrorLink, ventilated front seats, AC vents at the rear, MID instrument console, cruise control, ambient lighting, a seven-speaker music system, two-spoke steering wheel, auto-dimming IRVMs, steering-mounted controls, wireless charger and My Skoda Connect among others.


Under the hood, the Skoda Kushaq SUV is being offered with a choice of two petrol engines - a 1.0-litre three-cylinder TSI and a 1.5-litre four-cylinder TSI. The former is tuned to make 113 bhp and 175 Nm of peak torque. And the latter belts out 148 bhp and 250 Nm of peak torque. Transmission options will include a six-speed manual gearbox along with optional six-speed automatic transmission on the 1.0-Litre TSI, while the 1.5-litre TSI is offered with a seven-speed DSG gearbox.


In terms of safety features, the new Skoda Kushaq will come with a range of standard offerings like dual airbags, ESC, a three-point seatbelt for all five passengers, and ISOFIX child seat mounts. Optional safety features include - Hill-Hold Control, tyre pressure monitoring, 6 airbags (side and curtain included), auto headlamps and wipers and multi-collision braking system among others.

Upcoming Skoda Models are the New Kodiaq, New Fabia, Slavia and Kamiq

Skoda Kushaq Mileage



49%better mileage than other SUV

50.0 L Fuel Tank Capacity

Skoda Kushaq mileage is 15.8 to 17.9 Km/l, as per ARAI. The Manual Petrol engine has a mileage of 17.9 Km/l. The Automatic Petrol engine has a mileage of 15.8 Km/l.

Fuel TypeTransmissionMileage
PetrolManual17.9 Km/l
PetrolAutomatic15.8 Km/l

Skoda How to find credit card account number chase Specifications

Engine CC999/1498 cc
Mileage15.8 - 17.9 Km/l
Max Power113/148 bhp
Max Torque178/250 Nm
Transmissionमैन्युअल/ आटोमेटिक
Length/Width/Height1760 mm (width)/1612 mm (height)/2651 mm (wheelbase) mm
Kerb Weight1185/1265Kg
Boot Space1405 mm

Skoda Kushaq Features

  • Multi Collision Brake

  • Electric Sunroof

  • Apple CarPlay

  • Anti Theft Alarm

  • Rear Defogger

  • Auto dimming interior rear view mirror

  • ROP (Roll Over Protection)

  • BSW (Brake Disc Wiping)

  • MOR (Motor Slip Regulation)

View All Specs

View All Features

Skoda Kushaq Colors

Honey Orange

Available for all variants.

Brilliant Silver

Available for all variants.

Candy White

Available for all variants.

Tornado Red

Available for all variants.

Carbon Steel

Available for all variants.

Skoda Kushaq FAQs

  • What is the On-Road & Ex Showroom Price of Skoda Kushaq?

    Skoda Kushaq ex-showroom price starts at Rs 10.79 Lakh and goes upto Rs 17.99 Lakh. The top variant Skoda Kushaq on road price is Rs 20.89 Lakh. Skoda offers Kushaq in 7 variants.

  • What is the Seating capacity of Skoda Kushaq?

    Skoda Kushaq has a seating capacity of 5 people.

  • Which car is better between Skoda Kushaq vs Creta?

    The price of Kushaq starts at Rs. 10.79 Lakh (ex showroom) and the Creta i was made for loving you lyrics starts from Rs. 9.82 Lakh. Get detailed comparison between Kushaq and Creta

Explore Similar Luxury SUV Cars

₹ 10,79,000

(Ex-Showroom Price New Delhi)

Источник: https://www.carandbike.com/skoda-cars/kushaq