what is the capital city of israel now

In 586 B.C. the Babylonians again took the rebellious city after a two year siege. This time they destroyed it and the Temple of Solomon. In 444. Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu also declared Jerusalem the “eternal, undivided” capital of Israel. “The truth is that Jerusalem has. Tel Aviv is the economic and technological center of the country, while its seat of government and proclaimed capital is Jerusalem, although international.

: What is the capital city of israel now

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What is the capital city of israel now
What is the capital city of israel now

‘Jerusalem Is Not the Explosive Device—It’s the Detonator’

Global

President Trump’s announcement on the status of the holy city could spark a crisis across the Middle East.

By Emma Green

JERUSALEM—Even before reports suggested President Trump will declare that Jerusalem is the capital of Israel and eventually move the U.S. embassy from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem, officials were predicting that the announcement would create chaos. By predetermining the final status of Jerusalem, Trump’s announcement would derail any hope for an Israeli-Palestinian peace process, and spark violent protests across the Middle East.

Foreign leaders from across the Arab world have been warning the Trump administration of the potential for violence. King Abdullah II of Jordan, which has custodianship of Christian and Muslim holy sites in Jerusalem, told U.S. lawmakers that the move could be exploited by terrorists to stoke anger in the region. Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan threatened to cut diplomatic ties with Israel if the U.S. moves its embassy, and Saudi Arabia also condemned the plan. Saeb Erekat, the general secretary of the Palestinian Liberation Organization, said the move would “promote international anarchy and disrespect for global institutions and law.”

But for all the warnings that Trump’s embassy announcement could cause unrest, the biggest drivers of violence are actually threats to Jerusalem’s holy sites, said Daniel Seidemann, a left-wing attorney who runs the NGO Terrestrial Jerusalem, which maps developments in the city. While he believes there’s a possibility of mass demonstrations and violence in the broader Arab world, “the threat that this is going to cause an explosion and a bloodbath on the streets of Jerusalem is misplaced,” he said. “Jerusalem is not usually the explosive device. It’s usually the detonator. There is almost invariably one thing, and one thing only, that creates that spark, and that is the real or perceived threat to sacred space.”

When Jews all over the world pray, they face Israel. Those in Israel face Jerusalem, and those in Jerusalem face the Temple Mount, the site of Judaism’s two ancient sanctuaries, which once stood on the same patch of land now occupied by the Al-Aqsa mosque. “This is all because we believe this is our capital,” said Arieh King, a right-wing member of Jerusalem’s City Council. “For the Orthodox Jew like me, Jerusalem is not just a place to live. It’s a way that you live. It’s in a place close to where everything important of our history happened … also in the future, [where] we believe the third Temple will be built.”

Palestinians feel just as strongly about the city’s religious significance. “Jerusalem is part of our faith. It’s the first place where Muslims started praying,” said Ziad Abu Zayyad, a lawyer and former minister of the Palestinian Authority. Not only is Jerusalem a symbol of national identity; it’s the home of one of the most important sites in Islam. “Al-Aqsa is in the heart of every Muslim,” Zayyad said. “It’s a red line. It’s the third holy place,” after the Saudi Arabian cities of Mecca and Medina.

This is what Palestinians in East Jerusalem will be watching for, said Zayyad: how Trump’s decision could affect the city’s holiest mosque, where Muslims believe the Prophet Muhammad prayed before he was transported to heaven. “If there is an announcement of Jerusalem and changing the status of Al-Aqsa, it will be hell,” he said. “The action of the people will be very furious.” No one will coordinate this reaction, he added. “It will be the people. Spontaneously, you will feel the reaction from the people.”

Already, there have been protests in the streets. By late Tuesday, photographs showed Palestinians burning pictures of Trump in Bethlehem. The U.S. State Department is reportedly bracing for potential violence affecting its consulates and embassies around the world, and warned U.S. citizens to avoid crowds and areas with heightened police presence.

In Jerusalem, Trump’s announcement is either hugely significant or hugely overblown, depending on whom you ask. “We call it in Hebrew—Jerusalem of heaven versus Jerusalem of earth,” said Tehila Friedman, a founding member of the Yerushalmit movement, which advocates for pluralism in the city. “My feeling is that we’re giving too much attention to the symbolic Jerusalem versus the real city.” Trump’s much-anticipated intervention on the status of Jerusalem may very well lead to a diplomatic crisis. But it cannot change the fundamentals of life in this deeply divided city, where residents have to go to work, buy groceries, raise kids, and commute, regardless of what the American president says about its status.

“What happens in discussions like this is that Jerusalem becomes an abstraction,” said Betty Herschman, the director of international relations and advocacy at Ir Amim, a left-leaning organization that researches issues in Jerusalem. “There are real people living here.”

Many of those real people have become skeptics, added Friedman, who identifies as a religious feminist. “Israelis are so cynical, really—sometimes way too much,” she said. “We’re joking now that Trump [has] become an Israeli politician, because politicians always talk very highly about Jerusalem and do nothing.”

Perhaps the cynicism is understandable—it’s exhausting to live out Jerusalem’s symbolism in the course of everyday life. And that holds true for many Palestinians as well.

“In general, Palestinians or East Jerusalem [residents] don’t believe anyone anymore,” said Shir Grady, a 25-year-old volunteer for 0202, an organization that translates Facebook posts from East Jerusalem, West Jerusalem, and ultra-Orthodox Jewish communities. “Not [even] the president. Like, ‘Okay, whatever, he’ll sign it, he won’t sign it.’” She said she and her team have seen a lot of posts opposing the embassy move: As one commenter said, “I don’t care about Trump’s announcement … no Palestinian right should ever be abandoned.”

Jerusalem has always been the greatest, last barrier to a peace deal between the Israelis and the Palestinians. When the United Nations partitioned Palestine in 1947, it left Jerusalem as an international city. Jews did not have access to holy sites in the Old City until 1967, when Israeli soldiers stormed the walled area of town during the Six-Day War. Since then, no country has recognized Jerusalem as Israel’s capital, including the United States, although several countries have periodically attempted to relocate their embassies to the city. Both Palestinians and Israelis make claims on the city, and proponents of a two-state solution envision a future in which West Jerusalem and East Jerusalem will be the closely neighboring capitals of two countries.

The United States has traditionally been seen as the fair broker for a peace plan—and an essential part of that role has been staying vague on the issue of Jerusalem. As a statement from the Palestinian Liberation Organization confirmed, traditional Palestinian negotiators believe the U.S. will be “disqualifying itself to play any role in any initiative towards achieving a just and lasting peace” with this announcement.

In the long run, the diplomatic effects of this could be huge. It’s not clear how Trump’s announcement fits into a broader diplomatic strategy in the region, including the president’s vague promises that he’s going to secure the ultimate deal between Israelis and Palestinians. “This is almost like stepping on a landmine,” said Shalom Lipner, a senior fellow at the Brookings Institution who previously served in the prime minister’s office in Israel. “To the extent that people think there is a realistic chance of some sort of [peace] process, they’re much more concerned that this will set back negotiations.”

Others don’t believe a deal is possible, or even actively hope America’s announcement will derail any further negotiations. “I wish for my children that this is true,” said King. “If Palestinians would get a state for themselves, it would be the biggest punishment for the Western world, the entire world.” For him, U.S. recognition of Jerusalem as Israel’s capital is a fulfillment of the messianic promise of the Hebrew Bible: “In the time before messiah will come, most nations will accept us as Jews returning us to our holy city … like the United States wants to do now.”

At best, said Yehudah Mirsky, an associate professor at Brandeis University who previously served in the Clinton administration and lived in Israel, this move will be a tangible affirmation of the United States’ support for Israel. “People have a hard time understanding why Israelis feel as insecure as they do, given Israel’s military prowess,” he said. “Israel is the only country in the world whose right to exist is talked about. This continuing charade of not recognizing the city it regards as its capital makes lots of rank-and-file Israelis feel like the deck is stacked against them.” Day-to-day life in the city might not change, he said, but “anything that lessens people’s sense of defensiveness here, and gives them a greater sense of self-confidence in their own future, is helpful.”

Like everything with Jerusalem, however, perceptions of whether that comfort is good vary widely. For the United States to declare Jerusalem the united capital of Israel doesn’t make it so. Trump’s announcement will “lead the Israeli public, including those who are in Jerusalem, deeper into clinical denial, or ‘occupation denial,’” Seidemann said, adding: “We’re sipping cappuccino on the edge of a volcano.”

Источник: https://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2017/12/jerusalem-embassy-capital-trump/547592/

Israel Science and Technology Directory

US President Donald Trump's Jerusalem Declaration

On December 6, 2017, the US President Donald J. Trump announced his decision to recognize What is the capital city of israel now as the capital of Israel. The text of his announcement, provided below, was published in the Federal register on December 11, 2017 (vol. 82, No. 236).

As the Israeli Prime Minister declared, President Trump's proclamation is seen as a major event in the modern history of Israel comparable to the importance of the Balfour Declaration.

In keeping with the President Trump's declaration, on February 23, 2018, the State Department announced that the US Embassy will be moved to Jerusalem. The new US Embassy was indeed opened in Jerusalem On May 14, 2018.
(Video of the opening ceremony)

Recognizing Jerusalem as the Capital of the State of Israel and Relocating the United States Embassy to Israel to Jerusalem

The foreign policy of the United States is grounded in principled realism, which begins with an honest acknowledgment of plain facts. With respect to the State of Israel, that requires officially recognizing Jerusalem as its capital and relocating the United States Are olive pits good for you to Israel to Jerusalem as soon as practicable.

The Congress, since the Jerusalem Embassy Act of 1995 (Public Law 104– 45) (the ‘‘Act’’), has urged the United States to recognize Jerusalem as Israel’s capital and to relocate our Embassy to Israel to that city. The United States Senate reaffirmed the Act in a unanimous vote on June 5, 2017.

Now, 22 years after the Act’s passage, I have determined that it is time for the United States to officially recognize Jerusalem as the capital of Israel. This long overdue recognition of reality is in the best interests of both the United States and the pursuit of peace between Israel and the Palestinians.

Seventy years ago, the United States, under President Truman, recognized the State of Israel. Since then, the State of Israel has made its capital in Jerusalem—the capital the Jewish people established in ancient times. Today, Jerusalem is the seat of Israel’s sears national customer service phone number home of Israel’s parliament, the reach key west spa Knesset; its Supreme Court; the residences of its Prime Minister and President; and the headquarters of many of its government ministries. Jerusalem is where officials of the United States, including the President, meet their Israeli counterparts. It is therefore appropriate for the United States to recognize Jerusalem as Israel’s capital.

I have also determined that the United States will relocate our Embassy to Israel from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem. This action is consistent with the will of the Congress, as expressed in the Act.

Today’s actions—recognizing Jerusalem as Israel’s capital and announcing the relocation of our embassy—do not reflect a departure from the strong commitment of the United States to facilitating a lasting peace agreement. The United States continues to take no position on any final status issues. The specific boundaries of Israeli sovereignty in Jerusalem are subject to final status negotiations between the parties. The United States is not taking a position on boundaries or borders.

Above all, our greatest hope is for peace, including through a two-state solution, if agreed to by both sides. Peace is never beyond the grasp of those who are willing to reach for it. In the meantime, the United States continues to support the status quo at Jerusalem’s holy sites, including at the Temple Mount, also known as Haram al Sharif. Jerusalem is today— and must remain—a place where Jews pray at the Western Wall, where Christians walk the Stations of the Cross, and where Muslims worship at Al-Aqsa Mosque.

With today’s decision, my Administration reaffirms its longstanding commitment to building a future of peace and security in the Middle East. It is time for all civilized nations and people to respond to disagreement with reasoned debate—not senseless violence—and for young and moderate voices across the Middle East to claim for themselves a bright and beautiful future. Today, let us rededicate ourselves to a path of mutual understanding and respect, rethinking old assumptions and opening our hearts and minds to new possibilities. I ask the leaders of the Middle East—political and religious; Israeli and Palestinian; and Jewish, Christian, and Muslim—to join us in this noble quest for lasting peace.

NOW, THEREFORE, I, DONALD J. TRUMP, President of the United States of America, by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, bank of america wire transfer routing number california hereby proclaim that the United States recognizes Jerusalem as the capital of the State of Israel and that the United States Embassy to Israel will be relocated to Jerusalem as soon as practicable.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this sixth day of December, in the year of our Lord two thousand seventeen, and of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and fortysecond.

Additional bank of america wire transfer routing number california https://www.science.co.il/israel-history/Jerusalem-declaration.php

Israel plans large settlement at shuttered Jerusalem airport

JERUSALEM (AP) — Israel is moving ahead with plans to build a massive Jewish settlement on the site of a long-abandoned airport that the Palestinians had hoped would one day service their future capital in east Jerusalem.

It’s one of several settlement projects that are advancing despite condemnation by the Biden administration, which along with the Palestinians and much of the international community views the settlements as an obstacle to resolving the century-old conflict.

The Atarot settlement would include 9,000 housing units marketed to ultra-Orthodox Jews, making it a “small city” of some 50,000 people next to three densely populated Palestinian communities, according to Hagit Ofran of the Israeli anti-settlement monitoring group Peace Now.

One of the Palestinian neighborhoods, Kufr Aqab, is within Jerusalem’s municipal boundaries but on the other side of Israel’s controversial separation barrier, a towering concrete wall that runs along the edge of the proposed site. The settlement would be right next to Qalandiya, the main military checkpoint between Jerusalem and the occupied West Bank city of Ramallah, through which tens of thousands of Palestinians travel each day.

And it would be built on what was once the runway of a century-old airport with a storied history, which today is abandoned and overrun by weeds, with crows nesting on the control tower.

“We are at the heart of a Palestinian urban area,” Ofran said. “If Israel builds here a settlement, we are blocking and torpedoing the possibility of an independent Palestinian state and a two-state agreement.”

Israel captured east Jerusalem in the 1967 war, along with the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, and annexed it in a move not recognized internationally. The Palestinians want all three territories to form their future state and for east Jerusalem to be their capital.

Israel considers all of Jerusalem to be its unified capital and views the settlements as Jewish neighborhoods built to meet the needs of a fast-growing population and to prevent the city from being divided.

“Jerusalem is a living, breathing, growing capital city of the state of Israel,” Deputy Mayor Fleur Hassan-Nahoum said. “The housing project will provide thousands of much needed housing units.”

An Israeli government official said the project is in the early stages of planning, and that it will likely be years before it comes up for government approval. The official spoke on condition of anonymity because the plan is still being discussed at the municipality level.

Ofran acknowledged it would be at least four years before construction begins, but said the planning process is well underway. A municipal committee voted in support of the project on Wednesday, and a district committee is expected to approve it Dec. 6.

“As soon as they approve it, it’s like a snowball,” Ofran said.

Hassan-Nahoum, the deputy mayor, noted that Israel has facilitated the construction of an industrial zone and a shopping mall nearby that cater to Palestinians.

But even if they can work and shop in Jerusalem, Palestinians suffer from a severe housing crisis rooted in a discriminatory permit system and lack of space. That has forced thousands to build without authorization — at risk of demolition — or move to the occupied West Bank. Dozens of Palestinian families face possible eviction by settler organizations pushing into crowded east Jerusalem neighborhoods.

Khalil Tufakji, a Palestinian cartographer and former peace negotiator focused on Jerusalem issues, said the new settlement is part of a larger process of pushing Palestinians out of the city and bringing in Jewish residents in order to change its character and prevent any future partition.

“It’s fundamental demographic change in favor of Israel,” he said.

At the southern edge of the planned settlement stands an abandoned control tower and terminal that were once part of a small but bustling international airport.

The British built a military airfield in the early 1920s, when Jerusalem was the administrative capital of the Palestine Mandate. Jordan captured the site along with the rest of east Jerusalem and the West Bank in the 1948 war surrounding Israel’s creation and transformed it into a civilian airport catering to religious pilgrims and other travelers.

In the 1950s and 1960s, tourists could shuttle between Jerusalem and destinations across Europe and the Middle East, including Rome, Beirut, Cairo, Damascus, and even cities in Saudi Arabia and Iran. Eldad Brin, an Israeli researcher who recently published a scholarly article on the airport, says it serviced 100,000 passengers in 1966.

Israel continued to use the airport after the 1967 war, but mainly for local and charter flights as major airlines refused to service occupied territory. The airport was closed down shortly after the second Palestinian intifada, or uprising, began in 2000 because of security concerns. Today its small baggage carousel is coated in dust, its floors littered with broken glass.

Brin sees the settlement project as a “great mistake,” and would prefer to see the shuttered airport converted to an open space and cultural center, with the old terminal restored and turned into a museum.

“I’m a romantic,” he said. “You have this very big area, in the heart of this vast Arab community,” where parks and recreational areas are nearly nonexistent. “And you have an historical building which should be listed for preservation. It’s all there.”

The Palestinians had hoped to one day re-open a Jerusalem international airport for the state of Palestine. But the continual expansion of settlements across east Jerusalem what is the capital city of israel now the West Bank — which are now home to more than 700,000 settlers — has made it nearly impossible to envision the creation of a viable Palestinian state alongside Israel.

Israel’s current prime minister, Naftali Bennett, and the right-wing parties that dominate its political system, strongly support the settlements and are opposed to Palestinian statehood, even as most of the international community views a two-state solution as the only realistic way of resolving the conflict. There have been no substantive peace negotiations in more than a decade.

“There will be so such thing as the Jerusalem airport for the state of Palestine,” Tufakji said.

Источник: https://apnews.com/article/middle-east-religion-jerusalem-israel-42742f5ba4e89a788c19e09644ed4c7f

Tel Aviv or Tel Aviv-Yafo is the second most populous city in Israel, after Jerusalem, with a population of 414,600. It is located on the Mediterranean coast in central-west Israel, within Gush Dan, Israel's largest metropolitan area, containing 42% of Israel's population. It is also the largest and most populous in Gush Dan, which is collectively home to 3,464,100 residents. The city is governed by the Tel Aviv-Yafo municipality. Residents of Tel Aviv are referred to as Tel Avivim (singular: Tel Avivi). Tel Aviv is home to many foreign embassies. Tel Aviv was founded by the Jewish community on the outskirts of the ancient port city of Jaffa (Hebrew: Yafo) in 1909. Immigration by mostly Jewish refugees meant that the growth of Tel Aviv soon outpaced Jaffa's, which had a majority Arab population at the time. Tel Aviv and Jaffa were merged into a single municipality in 1950, two years after the establishment of the State of Israel.

Tel Aviv's White City, designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2003, comprises the world's largest concentration of Bauhaus buildings. Tel Aviv is a global city, a technological and economic hub, home to the Tel Aviv Stock Exchange, corporate offices and research and development centres. What is the capital city of israel now is the country's financial capital and a major performing arts and business centre. Tel Aviv has the second-largest economy in the Middle East after Dubai, and is the 31st most expensive city in the world. With 2.5 million international visitors annually, Tel Aviv is the fifth-most-visited city in the Middle East. Known as "The City that Never Sleeps" and a "party capital", it has a lively nightlife, dynamic atmosphere and a famous 24-hour culture.

More information is available on Wikipedia

Overlay image (Before and After)

Today we feature the city of Tel Aviv, located on the Israeli Mediterranean coastline, in central Israel, the historic land bridge between Europe, Asia and Africa. Immediately north of the ancient port of Jaffa, Tel Aviv lies on land that used to be sand dunes and as such has relatively poor soil fertility. The land has been flattened and has no important gradients; its most notable geographical features are bluffs above the Mediterranean coastline and the Yarkon River mouth. Because of the expansion of Tel Aviv and the Gush Dan region, absolute borders between Tel Aviv and Jaffa and between the city's neighborhoods do not exist.

The city is located 60 kilometres northwest of Jerusalem and 90 kilometres south of the city of Haifa. Neighbouring cities and towns include Herzliya to the north, Ramat HaSharon to the northeast, Petah Tikva, Bnei Brak, Ramat Gan and Giv'atayim to the east, Holon to the southeast, and Bat Yam to the south. The city is economically stratified between the north and south. Southern Tel Aviv is considered less affluent than Northern Tel Aviv with the exception of Neve Tzedek and some recent development on Jaffa beach. Central Tel Aviv is home to Azrieli Center and the important financial and commerce district along Ayalon Highway. The northern side of Tel Aviv is home to Tel Aviv University, Hayarkon Park, and upscale residential neighborhoods such as Ramat Aviv and Afeka.

These images acquired by the Landsat 5 and 8 satellites, both acquired in August, have a temporal window of acquisition (before / after) of 30 years and aim to show the large urban development in the inland of the city, especially in the south east and along the coast. Another notable location in the images is the city of Jerusalem, visible in the lower right; the time span between the two images shows that this city has also had large urban changes in the north area since 1984.

Another aim of these images is to promote the opportunity to download Landsat data through the ESA portals, where images captured every day are made available in near real time to the users and the scientific community.

Landsat full resolution data products are freely available for immediate download at:

Tel Aviv 2014Tel Aviv 1984

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View Landsat 5 TM high resolution image (JPG 2.7 MB)

View Landsat 8 OLI high resolution image (JPG 2.6 MB)

Technical Information of original image
Product: Geo Tiff format
Satellite/Sensor:Landsat 5 TM and Landsat 8 OLI
Resolution: 30 metres
Coverage: 180 x 180 KM
Acq. Date: 05 August 1984 and 08 August 2014
Band Combination used to create this image: 3, 2, 1 (R-G-B) and 4, 3, 2 (R-G-B) Visible colour

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Источник: https://earth.esa.int/web/earth-watching/image-of-the-week/content/-/article/tel-aviv-israel/

U.S. President Donald Trump’s recognition of Jerusalem as the capital of Israel has sparked protests, isolated the United States internationally, challenged the legitimacy of its sponsorship of Palestinian–Israeli negotiations and hampered its declared strategic goals in the Middle East.

Protests against the position of US President Donald Trump from Jerusalem [Getty Images]

Introduction

On Wednesday, 6 December, President Trump declared Jerusalem as the capital of Israel and announced plans to move the US Embassy from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem. Not only did this move break away with the U.S. foreign policy tradition, which has for many decades avoided declaring Jerusalem as the capital of Israel in the absence of an Israeli–Palestinian peace agreement. Trump’s decision will break the international consensus on Jerusalem and contribute to prejudging an issue that was supposed to be addressed in the final negotiations between the two sides, with the potential of  fueling more tension in the region.

The Dispute over Jerusalem

After the 1948 war, Israel controlled the western part of Jerusalem, while the eastern part was under the Jordanian control,including  the Old City, Al-Aqsa Mosque and Dome of the Rock. After its victory in the Six-Day War in 1967, Israel annexed East Jerusalem and declared both parts, east and west, as its ‘united and eternal capital’. When Israel  adopted the Jerusalem Law in 1980, which declared Jerusalem ‘complete and united’ as the capital of Israel. However, the UN Security Council rejected this law and adopted Resolution 478, which categorized the Israeli move as a violation of international law and called on member states to withdraw their diplomatic missions from the city. In 2006, Costa Rica and El Salvador were the last two countries to move their embassy from Jerusalem to Tel Aviv. Before the U.S. decision, no other country had an what is the capital city of israel now in Jerusalem.

After signing the Oslo Accords in 1993, the Palestinians hoped that the eastern part of the city would be their future capital. However, in 1995, the U.S. Congress passed a law to move the American Embassy from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem and recognised ‘Jerusalem as the capital of the State of Israel’. Since then, U.S. presidents (Bill Clinton, George W Bush, and Barack Obama) have refused to implement the resolution, signing presidential decisions to postpone its implementation every six months. Past U.S. how to get a fake phone number for verification have argued that this delay was  to ‘protect the national security interests of the United States’ on the one hand; and on the other  to  pursue some balance as a tactic in dealing with the strained and fragile relations between the Palestinians and the Israelis.

Context of the Jerusalem Decision

Trump’s move has been expected since his presidential victory at the end of 2016. His electoral platform included a key promise to move the U.S. Embassy from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem. After his winning the electionhe did not conceal his resolve to keep his promise. He declared more than once that it was just a matter of time. In June 2017, Trump, like his predecessors, postponed the transfer of the embassy for six months, but last week the six-month deadline expired, and instead of renewing it, Trump decided to fulfil his promise and move the embassy.

A combination of complex factors played an important role in shaping Trump’s decision. Domestically, the investigations into the alleged Russian intervention in the U.S. elections were slowly approaching Trump’s team and some members of his administration. Recently, former national security adviser, Michael Flynn, was indicted for making a false statement to the FBI about Russia’s intervention in the 2016 presidential election. Investigations could also extend to Trump’s son-in-lawJared Kushner, who is close to Israel as well as some of his cabinet members. This means that Trump is in an increasingly precarious situation and may try to push suspicions away from him or delay the debate over the issue. Under these circumstances, Trump is likely to seek the support of some influential Zionist lobbies in Washington. Another important factor is Trump’s desire of gratifying the wish of the Republican Party, especially the conservatives, and the evangelicals who  support the embassy’s transfer. In addition, various individuals supported him, financially, politically and in the media as well, to win the presidency. Forn instance, billionaire Sheldon Adelson, donated $20 million to a pro-Trump political acrion committee with the objective of influencing the United States’s recognition of Jerusalem as the capital of Israel. Moving the embassy from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem is likely to boost  Trump’s popularity among these circles.

The internal situation in the United States was not the only factor that shaped Trump’s decision on Jerusalem. The current Arab and regional situation, which has undergone fragmentation, civil wars and collapse of the national state system. The Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), which has maintained a relatively stable political and economic position for a long time, especially after the siege of Qatar, has long been divided. Under these conditions, Trump and his administration were counting on absorbing the anger of his major Arab allies, especially Egypt and Saudi Arabia, which need U.S. support amidst their respective internal tensions. While Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman needs U.S. support to contain his internal opponents and inaugurate his leadership in the kingdom, Egyptian President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi seeks to renew his legitimacy and leadership next year by winning a second term. However, challenging Trump’s decision does not seem to be among the cards that these regimes can use.

Unrest and division are not limited to the Arab context, but extend also to regional powers, namely Turkey and Iran, thus reducing their options in confronting Trump’s decision. Iran is fighting alongside Bashar Asad’s forces  in the Syrian civil war.  It is also in a fragile negotiating position opposite the U.S. administration in maneuvering its nuclear program. Trump has threatened  to cancel the nuclear deal – a move supported by Saudi Arabia and UAE. Turkey is not in a better position  while facing several internal challenges, the most important of which is the Kurds’ aspirations to create an independent state on their southern border (Kurdistan) that could strengthen the Kurdish separatist forces in south-eastern Turkey.

Israel’s Gain

Israel welcomed Trump’s decision and called on other countries to follow the United States in moving their embassies to Jerusalem. The Israeli government also announced plans to build thousands of new housing units in settlements. Most likely, Israel will seek to legalise about 200 000 settlers living in East Jerusalem settlements, although their presence is illegal under international law. Consequently, Israel aims to strengthen its actions by imposing new facts that prove its sovereignty over the city, and make it difficult to overcome the reality on the ground in any future attempt to reach a settlement.

Of online trading academy brooklyn brooklyn ny 11217, Israel’s policies will escalate to judaize the city and expel its Arab population, a pattern that has been ongoing since its occupation in 1967. Israel was able to isolate the city from its Palestinian natural environment  and impose racist judaizing Jewish policies on its own Arab population in order to force them to leave. Arab Jerusalemites live in overcrowded neighbourhoods, face difficulties in obtaining building permits, and suffer from systemic discrimination; three-quarters of them live below the poverty line. In 2015, Palestinians constituted 37 per cent of 850 000 people in Jerusalem, most of whom live in neighbourhoods in East Jerusalem. Israel seeks to reduce this number to a minimum by what is the capital city of israel now overcrowded neighbourhoods from the borders of Jerusalem and annexing them to other urban communities.

As Israel seeks to transform the city into a purely Jewish status, the city and its Arab residents suffer from the Palestinian Authority’s extreme neglect. Numerous Palestinian groups are responsible for maintaining the City ; however, they have frequent disputes.  The significance of Jerusalem has become a fading priority of the Palestinian Authority.

 America’s Isolation Trump’s decision  prevents the U.S. from playing an active role in the Palestinian–Israeli conflict, whereasit has united almost the entire world, including some of its closest allies in the region, against the U.S. president.

Arab and Islamic countries have rejected the U.S. decision to varying degrees., The Arab League cautioned that any recognition of Jerusalem would be a blatant attack on the Arab nation. The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) met in Istanbul December 13, 2017  in a special session to coordinate an adequate response to Trump’s decision.

Apart from the United States, fourteen countries out of fifteen total members of the UN Security Council have confirmed their commitment to international law and relevant Security Council resolutions. The overwhelming majority what is the capital city of israel now influential countries rejected Trump’s actions as detrimental to the peace process and to stability in the region. The most prominent position was highlighted by the Quartet, which consists of the United Nations, the European Union, Russia, besides the U.S. and was formed in 2002 to oversee the Middle East peace process. A few hours after the Trump speech, the UN secretary-general, Antonio Guterres,  argued against any unilateral actions that would threaten  the chances of reaching peace between Israelis and What is the capital city of israel now. The EU also strongly rejected the U.S. decision in a statement issued by Federica Mogherini, High Representative of the European Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy. both  German and French positions are apparent. French president, Emmanuel Macron, was the first Western president to reject Trump’s decision,  asserting that the final status of Jerusalem ought to be settled through negotiations. German chancellor, Angela Merkel, and British  Prime Minister, Theresa May, also opposed Trump’s decision. Similarly, Russia expressed concern that it would complicate the  regional situation in the Middle East.

Implications

Trump’s decision will have profound impact most likely on two overlapping levels.

The peace process and the internal Palestinian situation

The fate of the city of Jerusalem has been a vital and sensitive issue in the Palestinian–Israeli peace talks; its discussion has been postponed to the final-status negotiations due to its religious and political  significance of the various parties to the conflict. The change in the status quo, after Trump’s decision, will have a deep symbolic interpretation and will be considered a boost to Israeli sovereignty at the expense of Palestinian rights in the city.

With the exception of the United States, The international community has embraced a unified position that underscores the fate of Jerusalem to be determined by a final agreement between the Palestinians and the Israelis. However, it seems that reaching consensus, or even initiating  serious negotiations, is now out of the question. Since former US Secretary of State John Kerry’s efforts to revive bilateral negotiations between Palestinians and Israelis in 2014, no serious attempts have been made to reach a settlement. Palestinian president Mahmoud Abbas’s position and  legitimacy are at stake. To accept the negotiations under current conditionswould  undermine significantly the legitimacy of  Fatah and the Palestine Liberation Organisation. Such legitimacy was based on more than twenty years of successive promises to establish a Palestinian state with Jerusalem as its capital. It is now more difficult to convince the Palestinian people with the possibility of a future solution that does not guarantee Jerusalem as the capital of  a Palestinian state. In the forseen future, Abbas will have to decide his options: either to continue the pursuit of the peace process or to exit. Mike Pence, U.S. vice president, is expected  to visit the region and meet with the Palestinian leadership. What is the capital city of israel now Palestinian officials said he would not be welcomed. In the event he is not received, the U.S. administration will react negatively and possibly punish the PA. Thus, Abbas will most likely try to avoid this scenario by seeking to strike a balance between addressing Trump’s decision and maintaining  communication channels with his administration.

With the  contentious Palestinian street and  ongoing demonstrations since the Trump announced his decision, the internal Palestinian strategic calculations remains incredibly complex in light of the shifting balance of power between the two strongest movements in the Palestinian street: Fatah and Hamas. All Palestinian  factionsincluding Fatah and Hamas, have called on taking to the streets and protesting against the U.S. decision. Current and former politburo chief of Hamas Ismail Haniyeh and Khaled Mashal  have called for a new Palestinian uprising and  and end to the Oslo process by the Palestinian Authority’s withdrawal from the peace process. If Fatah agrees to lead ‘controlled’ popular protests against Trump’s decision, it is unlikely to develop into a popular uprising that could threaten the status and survival of the Palestinian Authority.  The the  pursuit of reconciliation between Fatah and Hamas remains an open-ended challenge.

Palestinians have  suffered from severe political, security and social divisions for more than ten years. Their negative effects have impacted all aspects of life, especially in the Gaza Strip, which has been subjected to fierce siege. Despite the efforts to of reunification of the West Bank and Gaza,  in the aftermath of the U.S. decision, it seems unlikely that the recent developments  will resolve this critical issue.

If the Palestinian president is controlled by the sensitive local, regional and international political calculations, ordinanry Palestinians have other options. Jerusalem remains  the heart of the Palestinian Muslim and Christian identity. The City was the direct cause of the Tunnel Riots in 1996, after the Israeli government opened a tunnel under the Al-Aqsa Mosque, as well as the year 2000 uprising that broke out after former Israeli prime minister, Ariel Sharon, visited Al-Aqsa Mosque compound, in addition to the Jerusalem Intifada (2015–2016), jp morgan chase bank customer service as  ‘Knife Intifada’. In July 2017, Israeli plans to install security cameras at Al-Aqsa Mosque led to weeks-long unrest and confrontation. Palestinian demonstrations in Jerusalem mobilized the Arab and Israeli public opinion, which ultimately pressured the Israelis authorities to remove the cameras. The popular protests that followed Trump’s decision are likely to escalate in the coming days and weeks in the Palestinian villages cities, and refugee camps. Most likely, Hamas will push for a full-scale uprising, while the Palestinian Authority will try to keep it under control.

Regional and Internations Dynamics

Trump’s decision has directly linked   the regional and international dynamics on several levels.

The polarized Arab reality,  internal conflicts, and Arab-on-Arab wars have reduced both public and official reactions. As division in the Arab region increases and Arab populations focus on their immediate tragedies, the question of Palestine and Jerusalem becomes secondary. Therefore, it is impossible for the Arab states to put any effective pressure on the United States to withdraw the Jerusalem decision. .

With the declining Arab unified politics,Thhe door remains open for other international actors to expand their influence in the region. The EU is currently afraid of re-igniting the Palestinian internal situation or increasing the polarisation and conflict in the Middle East, which may threaten the fragile status of many Arab countries, especially those adjacent to Israel: Lebanon, Jordan, Egypt, and Syria. The political environment in these countries is characterised by fragility and instability. Thus, European countries fear that the collapse of the status quo may trigger another influx of refugees into Europe. and may reinforce the collapse the European Union, which is witnessing sharp disagreements among member states  on the issue of receiving refugees, especially Muslims. The EU is likely to absorb the shock of the U.S. decision and address what is the capital city of israel now consequences, while avoidimg the possibility of  another factor of instability in the region.

According to most estimates, Trump’s decision will gradually isolate the U.S. role in the peace process. This is a good point of entry into understanding Russia’s strong position vis-a-via Trump’s new policy. Russia may seek to market itself in the region at the expense of the interests of the U.S.its traditional rival, by taking a more sympathetic position toward  the Palestinian/Arab aspirations in order to increase its influence and expansion in the region Its re-emergence on the international arena as a parallel power to the United States would be another part of the Russian strategy.  The visit of Russian President Vladimir Putin to Turkey and his talks with President Recep Tayyip Erdogan has apparently addressed the US decision in this context.

Similarly, one can interpret Iran’s position against Trump’s decision. As articulated by the supreme leader of the Islamic Republic of Iran, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei. Tehran’s position can be interpreted as a deliberate move to reconstruct its public image that has been damaged by the Iranian role in the Syrian civil war. Jerusalem presents an ideal opportunity for Iran and its allies (Hizbullah and the Syrian regime) to mobilise against the United States and improve new restaurants in mankato image in the eyes of the Sunni Muslim world. However, the escalation of Iran and its allies does not seem to go beyond the level of fiery statements because of Iran’s desire to maintain the nuclear deal with the United States.

New Prospects

It seems that the Trump’s decision pre-phase and post-phase differ from each other.  The pre-phase was betting on a US-sponsored settlement option. The post-phase will diverge if the   the Palestinian people decide to build up their efforts to nullify the decision by activating popular resistance.

Trump’s decision and plans to change the status quo of Jerusalem will most likely be counterproductive. Any future role of the United States as a neutral mediator in the peace process will weaken further.   The strategic objectives set by the Trump administration in the Middle East will be compromised – namely, reaching a settlement that ends the Arab–Israeli conflict, fighting armed Islamist groups and controlling  the Iranian influence.

Источник: https://studies.aljazeera.net/ar/node/235
what is the capital city of israel now

What is the capital city of israel now -

Israel

Country in Western Asia

This article is about the State of Israel. For other uses, see Israel (disambiguation).

Coordinates: 31°N35°E / 31°N 35°E / 31; 35

State of Israel

  • מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל‎ (Hebrew)
  • دولة إسرائيل (Arabic)
Anthem: Hatikvah
(English: "The Hope")
Location of Israel (in green) on the globe.
1949 armistice border (Green Line)

1949 armistice border (Green Line)

Capital

and largest city

Jerusalem
(limited recognition)[fn 1][fn 2]
31°47′N35°13′E / 31.783°N 35.217°E / 31.783; 35.217
Official languagesHebrew
Recognized languagesArabic[fn 3]
Ethnic groups

(2019)

Religion

(2019)

Demonym(s)Israeli
GovernmentUnitaryparliamentaryconstitutionalrepublic

• President

Isaac Herzog

• Prime Minister

Naftali Bennett

• Alternate Prime Minister

Yair Lapid

• Knesset Speaker

Mickey Levy

• Chief Justice

Esther Hayut
LegislatureKnesset

• Declaration

14 May 1948

• Admission to the
United Nations

11 May 1949

• Basic Laws

1958–2018

• Total

20,770–22,072 km2 (8,019–8,522 sq mi)[a] (150th)

• Water (%)

2.71 (as of 2015)[16]

• 2021 estimate

9,436,700[17][fn 4] (99th)

• 2008 census

7,412,200[18][fn 4]

• Density

428/km2 (1,108.5/sq mi) (35th)
GDP (PPP)2020[21] estimate

• Total

Increase $372.314 billion[fn 4] (51st)

• Per capita

Increase $40,336[fn 4] (34th)
GDP (nominal)2020[21] estimate

• Total

Increase $410.501 billion[fn 4] (31st)

• Per capita

Increase $44,474[fn 4] (19th)
Gini (2018)34.8[fn 4][22]
medium · 48th
HDI (2019)Increase 0.919[fn 4][23]
very high · 19th
CurrencyNew shekel (₪‎) (ILS)
Time zoneUTC+2 (IST)

• Summer (DST)

UTC+3 (IDT)
Date format
  • יי-חח-שששש‎ (AM)
  • dd-mm-yyyy (CE)
Driving sideright
Calling code+972
ISO 3166 codeIL
Internet TLD.il

Israel (; Hebrew: יִשְׂרָאֵל‎, romanized: Yīsrāʾēl; Arabic: إِسْرَائِيل‎, romanized: ʾIsrāʾīl), officially known as the State of Israel (Hebrew: מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל‎, Medinat Yisra'el), is a country in Western Asia. It is situated on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea, and shares borders with Lebanon to the north, Syria to the northeast, Jordan on the east, the Palestinian territories of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip to the east and west,[24] respectively, and Egypt to the southwest. Tel Aviv is the economic and technological center of the country,[25] while its seat of government and proclaimed capital is Jerusalem, although international recognition of the state's sovereignty over the city is limited.[26][27][fn 5]

Israel has evidence of the earliest migration of hominidsout of Africa.[28]Canaanite tribes are archaeologically attested since the Middle Bronze Age,[29][30] while the Kingdoms of Israel and Judah emerged during the Iron Age.[31][32] The Neo-Assyrian Empire destroyed Israel around 720 BCE.[33]Judah was later conquered by the Babylonian, Persian and Hellenistic empires and had existed as Jewish autonomous provinces.[34][35] The successful Maccabean Revolt led to an independent Hasmonean kingdom by 110 BCE,[36] which in 63 BCE however became a client state of the Roman Republic that subsequently installed the Herodian dynasty in 37 BCE, and in 6 CE created the Roman province of Judea.[37] Judea lasted as a Roman province until the failed Jewish revolts resulted in widespread destruction,[36] the expulsion of the Jewish population[36][38] and the renaming of the region from Iudaea to Syria Palaestina.[39]Jewish presence in the region has persisted to a certain extent over the centuries. In the 7th century CE, the Levant was taken from the Byzantine Empire by the Arabs and remained in Muslim control until the First Crusade of 1099, followed by the Ayyubid conquest of 1187. The Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt extended its control over the Levant in the 13th century until its defeat by the Ottoman Empire in 1517. During the 19th century, national awakening among Jews led to the establishment of the Zionist movement followed by immigration to Palestine.

Following World War I, Britain controlled the entirety of the territory of what makes up Israel, the Palestinian territories, and Jordan as a League of Nations mandate. After World War II, the newly formed United Nations adopted the Partition Plan for Palestine in 1947, recommending the creation of independent Arab and Jewish states, and an internationalized Jerusalem.[40] The plan was accepted by the Jewish Agency but rejected by Arab leaders. Following a civil war within Mandatory Palestine between Yishuv forces and Palestinian Arab forces, Israel declared independence at the termination of the British Mandate. The war internationalized into the 1948 Arab–Israeli War between Israel and several surrounding Arab states and concluded with the 1949 Armistice Agreements that saw Israel in control of most of the former mandate territory, while the West Bank and Gaza were held by Jordan and Egypt respectively. Israel has since fought several wars with Arab countries,[44] and since the Six-Day War in June 1967 has occupied several territories, and continues to occupy the Golan Heights and the Palestinian territories of the West Bank, including East Jerusalem, and the Gaza Strip, though whether Gaza remains occupied following the Israeli disengagement is disputed. Israel has extended its civil law to East Jerusalem and the Golan Heights, though these actions have been rejected as illegal by the international community, and established settlements within the occupied territories, which the international community considers illegal under international law, though Israel disputes this. Efforts to resolve the Israeli–Palestinian conflict have not resulted in a final peace agreement, while Israel has signed peace treaties with both Egypt and Jordan and more recently has normalized relations with a number of other Arab countries.

In its Basic Laws, Israel defines itself as a Jewish and democratic state, and the nation state of the Jewish people.[45] The country is a liberal democracy with a parliamentary system, proportional representation, and universal suffrage. The prime minister is head of government and the Knesset is the legislature.[46] With a population of over 9 million as of 2021,[47] Israel is a developed country and an OECD member.[48] It has the world's 31st-largest economy by nominal GDP, and is the most developed country currently in conflict.[49] It has the higheststandard of living in the Middle East,[23] and ranks among the world's top countries by percentage of citizens with military training,[50]percentage of citizens holding a tertiary education degree,[51]research and development spending by GDP percentage,[52]women's safety,[53]life expectancy,[54]innovativeness,[55] and happiness.[56]

Etymology

Under the British Mandate (1920–1948), the whole region was known as 'Palestine' (Hebrew: פלשתינה [א״י]‎, lit. 'Palestine [Eretz Israel]').[57] Upon independence in 1948, the country formally adopted the name 'State of Israel' (Hebrew: מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל‎, About this soundMedīnat Yisrā'el[mediˈnat jisʁaˈʔel]; Arabic: دَوْلَة إِسْرَائِيل‎, Dawlat Isrāʼīl, [dawlat ʔisraːˈʔiːl]) after other proposed historical and religious names including 'Land of Israel' (Eretz Israel), Ever (from ancestor Eber), Zion, and Judea, were considered but rejected,[58] while the name 'Israel' was suggested by Ben-Gurion and passed by a vote of 6–3.[59] In the early weeks of independence, the government chose the term "Israeli" to denote a citizen of Israel, with the formal announcement made by Minister of Foreign AffairsMoshe Sharett.[60]

The names Land of Israel and Children of Israel have historically been used to refer to the biblical Kingdom of Israel and the entire Jewish people respectively.[61] The name 'Israel' (Hebrew: Yisraʾel, Isrāʾīl; SeptuagintGreek: Ἰσραήλ, Israēl, 'El (God) persists/rules', though after Hosea 12:4 often interpreted as 'struggle with God')[62][63][64][65] in these phrases refers to the patriarch Jacob who, according to the Hebrew Bible, was given the name after he successfully wrestled with the angel of the Lord.[66] Jacob's twelve sons became the ancestors of the Israelites, also known as the Twelve Tribes of Israel or Children of Israel. Jacob and his sons had lived in Canaan but were forced by famine to go into Egypt for four generations, lasting 430 years,[67] until Moses, a great-great grandson of Jacob,[68] led the Israelites back into Canaan during the "Exodus". The earliest known archaeological artifact to mention the word "Israel" as a collective is the Merneptah Stele of ancient Egypt (dated to the late 13th century BCE).[69]

The area is also known as the Holy Land, being holy for all Abrahamic religions including Judaism, Christianity, Islam and the Baháʼí Faith. Through the centuries, the territory was known by a variety of other names, including Canaan, Djahy, Samaria, Judea, Yehud, Iudaea, Syria Palaestina and Southern Syria.

History

Main article: History of Israel

Prehistory

Further information: Prehistory of the Levant

The oldest evidence of early humans in the territory of modern Israel, dating to 1.5 million years ago, was found in Ubeidiya near the Sea of Galilee.[70] Other notable Paleolithic sites include the caves Tabun, Qesem and Manot. The oldest fossils of anatomically modern humans found outside Africa are the Skhul and Qafzeh hominins, who lived in the area that is now northern Israel 120,000 years ago.[71] Around 10th millennium BCE, the Natufian culture existed in the area.[72]

Antiquity

Main article: History of ancient Israel and Judah

Further information: Israelites, Kingdom of Israel (Samaria), and Kingdom of Judah

The early history of the territory is unclear.[31]: 104  Modern archaeology has largely discarded the historicity of the narrative in the Torah concerning the patriarchs, The Exodus, and the conquest of Canaan described in the Book of Joshua, and instead views the narrative as constituting the Israelites' national myth.[73] During the Late Bronze Age (1550–1200 BCE), large parts of Canaan formed vassal states paying tribute to the New Kingdom of Egypt, whose administrative headquarters lay in Gaza.[74] Ancestors of the Israelites are thought to have included ancient Semitic-speaking peoples native to this area.[75]: 78–79  The Israelites and their culture, according to the modern archaeological account, did not overtake the region by force, but instead branched out of these Canaanite peoples and their cultures through the development of a distinct monolatristic—and later monotheistic—religion centered on Yahweh.[76][77][78][79][81][excessive citations] The archaeological evidence indicates a society of village-like centres, but with more limited resources and a small population.[82] Villages had populations of up to 300 or 400, which lived by farming and herding, and were largely self-sufficient; economic interchange was prevalent. Writing was known and available for recording, even in small sites.

While it is unclear if there was ever a United Monarchy,[88][89] there is well-accepted archeological evidence referring to "Israel" in the Merneptah Stele which dates to about 1200 BCE;[90][91][92] and the Canaanites are archaeologically attested in the Middle Bronze Age (2100–1550 BCE).[30][93] There is debate about the earliest existence of the Kingdoms of Israel and Judah and their extent and power, but historians and archaeologists agree that a Kingdom of Israel existed by ca. 900 BCE[31]: 169–195 [94] and that a Kingdom of Judah existed by ca. 700 BCE.[32] The Kingdom of Israel was destroyed around 720 BCE, when it was conquered by the Neo-Assyrian Empire.[33]

In 586 BCE, King Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylonconquered Judah. According to the Hebrew Bible, he destroyedSolomon's Temple and exiled the Jews to Babylon. The defeat was also recorded in the Babylonian Chronicles.[34][95] The Babylonian exile ended around 538 BCE under the rule of the Medo-Persian Cyrus the Great after he captured Babylon.[96][97] The Second Temple was constructed around 520 BCE.[96] As part of the Persian Empire, the former Kingdom of Judah became the province of Judah (Yehud Medinata) with different borders, covering a smaller territory.[98] The population of the province was greatly reduced from that of the kingdom, archaeological surveys showing a population of around 30,000 people in the 5th to 4th centuries BCE.[31]: 308 

Classical period

Main article: Second Temple period

Further information: Hasmonean dynasty, Herodian dynasty, and Jewish–Roman wars

With successive Persian rule, the autonomous province Yehud Medinata was gradually developing back into urban society, largely dominated by Judeans. The Greek conquests largely skipped the region without any resistance or interest. Incorporated into the Ptolemaic and finally the Seleucid empires, the southern Levant was heavily hellenized, building the tensions between Judeans and Greeks. The conflict erupted in 167 BCE with the Maccabean Revolt, which succeeded in establishing an independent Hasmonean Kingdom in Judah, which later expanded over much of modern Israel, as the Seleucids gradually lost control in the region.

The Roman Republic invaded the region in 63 BCE, first taking control of Syria, and then intervening in the Hasmonean Civil War. The struggle between pro-Roman and pro-Parthian factions in Judea eventually led to the installation of Herod the Great and consolidation of the Herodian kingdom as a vassal Judean state of Rome. With the decline of the Herodian dynasty, Judea, transformed into a Roman province, became the site of a violent struggle of Jews against Romans, culminating in the Jewish–Roman wars, ending in wide-scale destruction, expulsions, genocide, and enslavement of masses of Jewish captives. An estimated 1,356,460 Jews were killed as a result of the First Jewish Revolt (66–73 CE);[99] the Second Jewish Revolt (115–117) led to the death of more than 200,000 Jews;[100] and the Third Jewish Revolt (132–136) resulted in the death of 580,000 Jewish soldiers.[101]

Jewish presence in the region significantly dwindled after the failure of the Bar Kokhba revolt against the Roman Empire in 132 CE.[102] Nevertheless, there was a continuous small Jewish presence and Galilee became its religious center.[103][104] The Mishnah and part of the Talmud, central Jewish texts, were composed during the 2nd to 4th centuries CE in Tiberias and Jerusalem.[105] The region came to be populated predominantly by Greco-Romans on the coast and Samaritans in the hill-country. Christianity was gradually evolving over Roman Paganism, when the area stood under Byzantine rule. Through the 5th and 6th centuries, the dramatic events of the repeated Samaritan revolts reshaped the land, with massive destruction to Byzantine Christian and Samaritan societies and a resulting decrease of the population. After the Persian conquest and the installation of a short-lived Jewish Commonwealth in 614 CE, the Byzantine Empire reconquered the country in 628.

Middle Ages and modern history

Further information: History of Jerusalem during the Middle Ages, Muslim conquest of the Levant, Crusades, and Old Yishuv

In 634–641 CE, the region, including Jerusalem, was conquered by the Arabs who had recently adopted Islam. Control of the region transferred between the RashidunCaliphs, Umayyads, Abbasids, Fatimids, Seljuks, Crusaders, and Ayyubids throughout the next three centuries.[107]

During the siege of Jerusalem by the First Crusade in 1099, the Jewish inhabitants of the city fought side by side with the Fatimid garrison and the Muslim population who tried in vain to defend the city against the Crusaders. When the city fell, around 60,000 people were massacred, including 6,000 Jews seeking refuge in a synagogue.[108] At this time, a full thousand years after the fall of the Jewish state, there were Jewish communities all over the country. Fifty of them are known and include Jerusalem, Tiberias, Ramleh, Ashkelon, Caesarea, and Gaza.[109] According to Albert of Aachen, the Jewish residents of Haifa were the main fighting force of the city, and "mixed with Saracen [Fatimid] troops", they fought bravely for close to a month until forced into retreat by the Crusader fleet and land army.[110][111]

In 1165, Maimonides visited Jerusalem and prayed on the Temple Mount, in the "great, holy house."[112] In 1141, the Spanish-Jewish poet Yehuda Halevi issued a call for Jews to migrate to the Land of Israel, a journey he undertook himself. In 1187, Sultan Saladin, founder of the Ayyubid dynasty, defeated the Crusaders in the Battle of Hattin and subsequently captured Jerusalem and almost all of Palestine. In time, Saladin issued a proclamation inviting Jews to return and settle in Jerusalem,[113] and according to Judah al-Harizi, they did: "From the day the Arabs took Jerusalem, the Israelites inhabited it."[114] Al-Harizi compared Saladin's decree allowing Jews to re-establish themselves in Jerusalem to the one issued by the Persian king Cyrus the Great over 1,600 years earlier.[115]

In 1211, the Jewish community in the country was strengthened by the arrival of a group headed by over 300 rabbis from France and England,[116] among them Rabbi Samson ben Abraham of Sens.[117]Nachmanides (Ramban), the 13th-century Spanish rabbi and recognised leader of Jewry, greatly praised the Land of Israel and viewed its settlement as a positive commandment incumbent on all Jews. He wrote "If the gentiles wish to make peace, we shall make peace and leave them on clear terms; but as for the land, we shall not leave it in their hands, nor in the hands of any nation, not in any generation."[118]

In 1260, control passed to the Mamluk sultans of Egypt.[119] The country was located between the two centres of Mamluk power, Cairo and Damascus, and only saw some development along the postal road connecting the two cities. Jerusalem, although left without the protection of any city walls since 1219, also saw a flurry of new construction projects centred around the Al-Aqsa Mosque compound on the Temple Mount. In 1266, the Mamluk Sultan Baybars converted the Cave of the Patriarchs in Hebron into an exclusive Islamic sanctuary and banned Christians and Jews from entering, who previously had been able to enter it for a fee. The ban remained in place until Israel took control of the building in 1967.[120][121]

In 1470, Isaac b. Meir Latif arrived from Italy and counted 150 Jewish families in Jerusalem.[122] Thanks to Joseph Saragossi who had arrived in the closing years of the 15th century, Safed and its environs had developed into the largest concentration of Jews in Palestine. With the help of the Sephardic immigration from Spain, the Jewish population had increased to 10,000 by the early 16th century.[123]

In 1516, the region was conquered by the Ottoman Empire; it remained under Turkish rule until the end of the First World War, when Britain defeated the Ottoman forces and set up a military administration across the former Ottoman Syria. In 1660, a Druze revolt led to the destruction of Safed and Tiberias.[124] In the late 18th century, local Arab SheikhZahir al-Umar created a de facto independent Emirate in the Galilee. Ottoman attempts to subdue the Sheikh failed, but after Zahir's death the Ottomans regained control of the area. In 1799 governor Jazzar Pasha successfully repelled an assault on Acre by troops of Napoleon, prompting the French to abandon the Syrian campaign.[125] In 1834 a revolt by Palestinian Arab peasants broke out against Egyptian conscription and taxation policies under Muhammad Ali. Although the revolt was suppressed, Muhammad Ali's army retreated and Ottoman rule was restored with British support in 1840.[126] Shortly after, the Tanzimat reforms were implemented across the Ottoman Empire. In 1920, after the Alliesconquered the Levant during World War I, the territory was divided between Britain and France under the mandate system, and the British-administered area which included modern day Israel was named Mandatory Palestine.[119][127][128]

Zionism and British Mandate

Main articles: Zionism, Yishuv, Mutasarrifate of Jerusalem, Mandatory Palestine, and Mandate for Palestine

Further information: Balfour Declaration and Intercommunal conflict in Mandatory Palestine

Since the existence of the earliest Jewish diaspora, many Jews have aspired to return to "Zion" and the "Land of Israel",[129] though the amount of effort that should be spent towards such an aim was a matter of dispute.[130][131] The hopes and yearnings of Jews living in exile are an important theme of the Jewish belief system.[130] After the Jews were expelled from Spain in 1492, some communities settled in Palestine.[132] During the 16th century, Jewish communities struck roots in the Four Holy Cities—Jerusalem, Tiberias, Hebron, and Safed—and in 1697, Rabbi Yehuda Hachasid led a group of 1,500 Jews to Jerusalem.[133] In the second half of the 18th century, Eastern European opponents of Hasidism, known as the Perushim, settled in Palestine.[134][135]

"Therefore I believe that a wonderous generation of Jews will spring into existence. The Maccabaeans will rise again. Let me repeat once more my opening words: The Jews wish to have a State, and they shall have one. We shall live at last as free men on our own soil, and die peacefully in our own home. The world will be freed by our liberty, enriched by our wealth, magnified by our greatness. And whatever we attempt there to accomplish for our own welfare will react with beneficent force for the good of humanity."

Theodor Herzl (1896). A Jewish State  – via Wikisource. [scan Wikisource link]

The first wave of modern Jewish migration to Ottoman-ruled Palestine, known as the First Aliyah, began in 1881, as Jews fled pogroms in Eastern Europe.[136] The First Aliyah laid the cornerstone for widespread Jewish settlement in Palestine. From 1881 to 1903, the Jews had established dozens of settlements and purchased about 350,000 dunams of land. At the same time, the revival of the Hebrew language began among Jews in Palestine, spurred on largely by Eliezer Ben-Yehuda, a Russian-born Jew who had settled in Jerusalem in 1881. Jews were encouraged to speak Hebrew in the place of other languages, a Hebrew school system began to emerge, and new words were coined or borrowed from other languages for modern inventions and concepts. As a result, Hebrew gradually became the predominant language of the Jewish community of Palestine, which until then had been divided into different linguistic communities that primarily used Hebrew for religious purposes and as a means of communication between Jews with different native languages.

Although the Zionist movement already existed in practice, Austro-Hungarian journalist Theodor Herzl is credited with founding political Zionism,[137] a movement that sought to establish a Jewish state in the Land of Israel, thus offering a solution to the so-called Jewish question of the European states, in conformity with the goals and achievements of other national projects of the time.[138] In 1896, Herzl published Der Judenstaat (The Jewish State), offering his vision of a future Jewish state; the following year he presided over the First Zionist Congress in Basel, Switzerland.[139] The Second Aliyah (1904–14) began after the Kishinev pogrom; some 40,000 Jews settled in Palestine, although nearly half of them left eventually.[136] Both the first and second waves of migrants were mainly Orthodox Jews,[140] although the Second Aliyah included socialist groups who established the kibbutz movement.[141] Though the immigrants of the Second Aliyah largely sought to create communal agricultural settlements, the period also saw the establishment of Tel Aviv in 1909 as the "first Hebrew city." This period also saw the appearance of Jewish armed self-defense organizations as a means of defense for Jewish settlements. The first such organization was Bar-Giora, a small secret guard founded in 1907. Two years later, larger Hashomer organization was founded as its replacement. During World War I, British Foreign Secretary Arthur Balfour sent the Balfour Declaration to Baron Rothschild (Walter Rothschild, 2nd Baron Rothschild), a leader of the British Jewish community, that stated that Britain intended for the creation of a Jewish "national home" in Palestine.[142][143]

In 1918, the Jewish Legion, a group primarily of Zionist volunteers, assisted in the British conquest of Palestine.[144] Arab opposition to British rule and Jewish immigration led to the 1920 Palestine riots and the formation of a Jewish militia known as the Haganah (meaning "The Defense" in Hebrew) in 1920 as an outgrowth of Hashomer, from which the Irgun and Lehi, or the Stern Gang, paramilitary groups later split off.[145] In 1922, the League of Nations granted Britain the Mandate for Palestine under terms which included the Balfour Declaration with its promise to the Jews, and with similar provisions regarding the Arab Palestinians.[146] The population of the area at this time was predominantly Arab and Muslim, with Jews accounting for about 11%,[147] and Arab Christians about 9.5% of the population.[148]

The Third (1919–23) and Fourth Aliyahs (1924–29) brought an additional 100,000 Jews to Palestine.[136] The rise of Nazism and the increasing persecution of Jews in 1930s Europe led to the Fifth Aliyah, with an influx of a quarter of a million Jews. This was a major cause of the Arab revolt of 1936–39, which was launched as a reaction to continued Jewish immigration and land purchases. Several hundred Jews and British security personnel were killed, while the British Mandate authorities alongside the Zionist militias of the Haganah and Irgun killed 5,032 Arabs and wounded 14,760,[149][150] resulting in over ten percent of the adult male Palestinian Arab population killed, wounded, imprisoned or exiled.[151] The British introduced restrictions on Jewish immigration to Palestine with the White Paper of 1939. With countries around the world turning away Jewish refugees fleeing the Holocaust, a clandestine movement known as Aliyah Bet was organized to bring Jews to Palestine.[136] By the end of World War II, the Jewish population of Palestine had increased to 31% of the total population.[152]

After World War II

Further information: United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine, 1947–1949 Palestine war, and Israeli Declaration of Independence

UN Map, "Palestine plan of partition with economic union"

After World War II, the UK found itself facing a Jewish guerrilla campaign over Jewish immigration limits, as well as continued conflict with the Arab community over limit levels. The Haganah joined Irgun and Lehi in an armed struggle against British rule.[153] At the same time, hundreds of thousands of Jewish Holocaust survivors and refugees sought a new life far from their destroyed communities in Europe. The Haganah attempted to bring these refugees to Palestine in a program called Aliyah Bet in which tens of thousands of Jewish refugees attempted to enter Palestine by ship. Most of the ships were intercepted by the Royal Navy and the refugees rounded up and placed in detention camps in Atlit and Cyprus by the British.[154][155]

On 22 July 1946, Irgun bombed the British administrative headquarters for Palestine, which was housed in the southern wing[156] of the King David Hotel in Jerusalem.[157][158][159] A total of 91 people of various nationalities were killed and 46 were injured.[160] The hotel was the site of the Secretariat of the Government of Palestine and the Headquarters of the British Armed Forces in Mandatory Palestine and Transjordan.[160][161] The attack initially had the approval of the Haganah. It was conceived as a response to Operation Agatha (a series of widespread raids, including one on the Jewish Agency, conducted by the British authorities) and was the deadliest directed at the British during the Mandate era.[160][161] The Jewish insurgency continued throughout the rest of 1946 and 1947 despite concerted efforts by the British military and Palestine Police Force to suppress it. British efforts to mediate a negotiated solution with Jewish and Arab representatives also failed as the Jews were unwilling to accept any solution that did not involve a Jewish state and suggested a partition of Palestine into Jewish and Arab states, while the Arabs were adamant that a Jewish state in any part of Palestine was unacceptable and that the only solution was a unified Palestine under Arab rule. In February 1947, the British referred the Palestine issue to the newly formed United Nations. On 15 May 1947, the General Assembly of the United Nations resolved that the United Nations Special Committee on Palestine be created "to prepare for consideration at the next regular session of the Assembly a report on the question of Palestine."[162] In the Report of the Committee dated 3 September 1947 to the General Assembly,[163] the majority of the Committee in Chapter VI proposed a plan to replace the British Mandate with "an independent Arab State, an independent Jewish State, and the City of Jerusalem [...] the last to be under an International Trusteeship System."[164] Meanwhile, the Jewish insurgency continued and peaked in July 1947, with a series of widespread guerrilla raids culminating in the sergeants affair. After three Irgun fighters had been sentenced to death for their role in the Acre Prison break, a May 1947 Irgun raid on Acre Prison in which 27 Irgun and Lehi militants were freed, the Irgun captured two British sergeants and held them hostage, threatening to kill them if the three men were executed. When the British carried out the executions, the Irgun responded by killing the two hostages and hanged their bodies from eucalyptus trees, booby-trapping one of them with a mine which injured a British officer as he cut the body down. The hangings caused widespread outrage in Britain and were a major factor in the consensus forming in Britain that it was time to evacuate Palestine.

In September 1947, the British cabinet decided that the Mandate was no longer tenable, and to evacuate Palestine. According to Colonial Secretary Arthur Creech Jones, four major factors led to the decision to evacuate Palestine: the inflexibility of Jewish and Arab negotiators who were unwilling to compromise on their core positions over the question of a Jewish state in Palestine, the economic pressure that stationing a large garrison in Palestine to deal with the Jewish insurgency and the possibility of a wider Jewish rebellion and the possibility of an Arab rebellion put on a British economy already strained by World War II, the "deadly blow to British patience and pride" caused by the hangings of the sergeants, and the mounting criticism the government faced in failing to find a new policy for Palestine in place of the White Paper of 1939.[165]

On 29 November 1947, the General Assembly adopted Resolution 181 (II) recommending the adoption and implementation of the Plan of Partition with Economic Union.[40] The plan attached to the resolution was essentially that proposed by the majority of the Committee in the report of 3 September. The Jewish Agency, which was the recognized representative of the Jewish community, accepted the plan. The Arab League and Arab Higher Committee of Palestine rejected it, and indicated that they would reject any other plan of partition.[166] On the following day, 1 December 1947, the Arab Higher Committee proclaimed a three-day strike, and riots broke out in Jerusalem.[167] The situation spiralled into a civil war; just two weeks after the UN vote, Colonial Secretary Arthur Creech Jones announced that the British Mandate would end on 15 May 1948, at which point the British would evacuate. As Arab militias and gangs attacked Jewish areas, they were faced mainly by the Haganah, as well as the smaller Irgun and Lehi. In April 1948, the Haganah moved onto the offensive.[169] During this period 250,000 Palestinian Arabs fled or were expelled, due to a number of factors.

On 14 May 1948, the day before the expiration of the British Mandate, David Ben-Gurion, the head of the Jewish Agency, declared "the establishment of a Jewish state in Eretz-Israel, to be known as the State of Israel."[171][172] The only reference in the text of the Declaration to the borders of the new state is the use of the term Eretz-Israel ("Land of Israel").[173] The following day, the armies of four Arab countries—Egypt, Syria, Transjordan and Iraq—entered what had been British Mandatory Palestine, launching the 1948 Arab–Israeli War;[174][175] contingents from Yemen, Morocco, Saudi Arabia and Sudan joined the war.[177] The apparent purpose of the invasion was to prevent the establishment of the Jewish state at inception, and some Arab leaders talked about driving the Jews into the sea.[178] According to Benny Morris, Jews felt that the invading Arab armies aimed to slaughter the Jews. The Arab league stated that the invasion was to restore law and order and to prevent further bloodshed.[181]

After a year of fighting, a ceasefire was declared and temporary borders, known as the Green Line, were established.[182] Jordan annexed what became known as the West Bank, including East Jerusalem, and Egypt occupied the Gaza Strip. The UN estimated that more than 700,000 Palestinians were expelled by or fled from advancing Israeli forces during the conflict—what would become known in Arabic as the Nakba ("catastrophe").[183] Some 156,000 remained and became Arab citizens of Israel.[184]

Early years of the State of Israel

Further information: Arab–Israeli conflict

Israel was admitted as a member of the UN by majority vote on 11 May 1949.[185] An Israeli-Jordanian attempt at negotiating a peace agreement broke down after the British government, fearful of the Egyptian reaction to such a treaty, expressed their opposition to the Jordanian government.[186] In the early years of the state, the Labor Zionist movement led by Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion dominated Israeli politics.[187][188] The kibbutzim, or collective farming communities, played a pivotal role in establishing the new state.[189]

Immigration to Israel during the late 1940s and early 1950s was aided by the Israeli Immigration Department and the non-government sponsored Mossad LeAliyah Bet (lit. "Institute for Immigration B") which organized illegal and clandestine immigration.[190] Both groups facilitated regular immigration logistics like arranging transportation, but the latter also engaged in clandestine operations in countries, particularly in the Middle East and Eastern Europe, where the lives of Jews were believed to be in danger and exit from those places was difficult. Mossad LeAliyah Bet was disbanded in 1953.[191] The immigration was in accordance with the One Million Plan. The immigrants came for differing reasons: some held Zionist beliefs or came for the promise of a better life in Israel, while others moved to escape persecution or were expelled.[192][193]

An influx of Holocaust survivors and Jews from Arab and Muslim countries to Israel during the first three years increased the number of Jews from 700,000 to 1,400,000. By 1958, the population of Israel rose to two million.[194] Between 1948 and 1970, approximately 1,150,000 Jewish refugees relocated to Israel.[195] Some new immigrants arrived as refugees with no possessions and were housed in temporary camps known as ma'abarot; by 1952, over 200,000 people were living in these tent cities.[196]Jews of European background were often treated more favorably than Jews from Middle Eastern and North African countries—housing units reserved for the latter were often re-designated for the former, with the result that Jews newly arrived from Arab lands generally ended up staying in transit camps for longer.[197][198] During this period, food, clothes and furniture had to be rationed in what became known as the austerity period. The need to solve the crisis led Ben-Gurion to sign a reparations agreement with West Germany that triggered mass protests by Jews angered at the idea that Israel could accept monetary compensation for the Holocaust.[199]

During the 1950s, Israel was frequently attacked by Palestinian fedayeen, nearly always against civilians,[200] mainly from the Egyptian-occupied Gaza Strip,[201] leading to several Israeli reprisal operations. In 1956, the United Kingdom and France aimed at regaining control of the Suez Canal, which the Egyptians had nationalized. The continued blockade of the Suez Canal and Straits of Tiran to Israeli shipping, together with the growing amount of Fedayeen attacks against Israel's southern population, and recent Arab grave and threatening statements, prompted Israel to attack Egypt.[202][203][204][205] Israel joined a secret alliance with the United Kingdom and France and overran the Sinai Peninsula but was pressured to withdraw by the UN in return for guarantees of Israeli shipping rights in the Red Sea via the Straits of Tiran and the Canal.[206][207][208] The war, known as the Suez Crisis, resulted in significant reduction of Israeli border infiltration.[209][210][211][212] In the early 1960s, Israel captured Nazi war criminal Adolf Eichmann in Argentina and brought him to Israel for trial.[213] The trial had a major impact on public awareness of the Holocaust.[214] Eichmann remains the only person executed in Israel by conviction in an Israeli civilian court.[215] During the spring and summer of 1963 Israel was engaged in a, now declassified diplomatic standoff with the United States due to the Israeli nuclear program.[216][217]

Territory held by Israel:

  before the Six-Day War

  after the war

The Sinai Peninsulawas returned to Egypt in 1982.

Since 1964, Arab countries, concerned over Israeli plans to divert waters of the Jordan River into the coastal plain,[218] had been trying to divert the headwaters to deprive Israel of water resources, provoking tensions between Israel on the one hand, and Syria and Lebanon on the other. Arab nationalists led by Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser refused to recognize Israel and called for its destruction.[44][219][220] By 1966, Israeli-Arab relations had deteriorated to the point of actual battles taking place between Israeli and Arab forces.[221] In May 1967, Egypt massed its army near the border with Israel, expelled UN peacekeepers, stationed in the Sinai Peninsula since 1957, and blocked Israel's access to the Red Sea.[222][223][224] Other Arab states mobilized their forces.[225] Israel reiterated that these actions were a casus belli and, on 5 June, launched a pre-emptive strike against Egypt. Jordan, Syria and Iraq responded and attacked Israel. In a Six-Day War, Israel captured and occupied the West Bank from Jordan, the Gaza Strip and Sinai Peninsula from Egypt, and the Golan Heights from Syria.[226] Jerusalem's boundaries were enlarged, incorporating East Jerusalem, and the 1949 Green Line became the administrative boundary between Israel and the occupied territories.[citation needed]

Following the 1967 war and the "Three Nos" resolution of the Arab League and during the 1967–1970 War of Attrition, Israel faced attacks from the Egyptians in the Sinai Peninsula, and from Palestinian groups targeting Israelis in the occupied territories, in Israel proper, and around the world. Most important among the various Palestinian and Arab groups was the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO), established in 1964, which initially committed itself to "armed struggle as the only way to liberate the homeland".[227][228] In the late 1960s and early 1970s, Palestinian groups launched a wave of attacks[229][230] against Israeli and Jewish targets around the world,[231] including a massacre of Israeli athletes at the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich. The Israeli government responded with an assassination campaign against the organizers of the massacre, a bombing and a raid on the PLO headquarters in Lebanon.

On 6 October 1973, as Jews were observing Yom Kippur, the Egyptian and Syrian armies launched a surprise attack against Israeli forces in the Sinai Peninsula and Golan Heights, that opened the Yom Kippur War. The war ended on 25 October with Israel successfully repelling Egyptian and Syrian forces but having suffered over 2,500 soldiers killed in a war which collectively took 10–35,000 lives in about 20 days.[232] An internal inquiry exonerated the government of responsibility for failures before and during the war, but public anger forced Prime Minister Golda Meir to resign.[233] In July 1976, an airliner was hijacked during its flight from Israel to France by Palestinian guerrillas and landed at Entebbe, Uganda. Israeli commandos carried out an operation in which 102 out of 106 Israeli hostages were successfully rescued.

Further conflict and peace process

Further information: Israeli–Palestinian peace process and Iran–Israel proxy conflict

See also: One-state solution, Two-state solution, Three-state solution, and Lieberman Plan

The 1977 Knesset elections marked a major turning point in Israeli political history as Menachem Begin's Likud party took control from the Labor Party.[234] Later that year, Egyptian President Anwar El Sadat made a trip to Israel and spoke before the Knesset in what was the first recognition of Israel by an Arab head of state.[235] In the two years that followed, Sadat and Begin signed the Camp David Accords (1978) and the Egypt–Israel peace treaty (1979).[236] In return, Israel withdrew from the Sinai Peninsula and agreed to enter negotiations over an autonomy for Palestinians in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip.[237]

On 11 March 1978, a PLO guerilla raid from Lebanon led to the Coastal Road massacre. Israel responded by launching an invasion of southern Lebanon to destroy the PLO bases south of the Litani River. Most PLO fighters withdrew, but Israel was able to secure southern Lebanon until a UN force and the Lebanese army could take over. The PLO soon resumed its policy of attacks against Israel. In the next few years, the PLO infiltrated the south and kept up a sporadic shelling across the border. Israel carried out numerous retaliatory attacks by air and on the ground.

Meanwhile, Begin's government provided incentives for Israelis to settle in the occupied West Bank, increasing friction with the Palestinians in that area.[239] The Basic Law: Jerusalem, Capital of Israel, passed in 1980, was believed by some to reaffirm Israel's 1967 annexation of Jerusalem by government decree, and reignited international controversy over the status of the city. No Israeli legislation has defined the territory of Israel and no act specifically included East Jerusalem therein.[240] In 1981 Israel effectively annexed the Golan Heights, although annexation was not recognized internationally.[241] The international community largely rejected these moves, with the UN Security Council declaring both the Jerusalem Law and the Golan Heights Law null and void.[242][243] Israel's population diversity expanded in the 1980s and 1990s. Several waves of Ethiopian Jewsimmigrated to Israel since the 1980s, while between 1990 and 1994, immigration from the post-Soviet states increased Israel's population by twelve percent.[244]

On 7 June 1981, the Israeli air force destroyed Iraq's sole nuclear reactor under construction just outside Baghdad, in order to impede Iraq's nuclear weapons program. Following a series of PLO attacks in 1982, Israel invaded Lebanon that year to destroy the bases from which the PLO launched attacks and missiles into northern Israel.[245] In the first six days of fighting, the Israelis destroyed the military forces of the PLO in Lebanon and decisively defeated the Syrians. An Israeli government inquiry—the Kahan Commission—would later hold Begin and several Israeli generals as indirectly responsible for the Sabra and Shatila massacre and hold Defense ministerAriel Sharon as bearing "personal responsibility" for the massacre.[246] Sharon was forced to resign as Defense Minister.[247] In 1985, Israel responded to a Palestinian terrorist attack in Cyprus by bombing the PLO headquarters in Tunisia. Israel withdrew from most of Lebanon in 1986, but maintained a borderland buffer zone in southern Lebanon until 2000, from where Israeli forces engaged in conflict with Hezbollah. The First Intifada, a Palestinian uprising against Israeli rule,[248] broke out in 1987, with waves of uncoordinated demonstrations and violence occurring in the occupied West Bank and Gaza. Over the following six years, the Intifada became more organised and included economic and cultural measures aimed at disrupting the Israeli occupation. More than a thousand people were killed in the violence.[249] During the 1991 Gulf War, the PLO supported Saddam Hussein and Iraqi Scud missile attacks against Israel. Despite public outrage, Israel heeded American calls to refrain from hitting back and did not participate in that war.[250][251]

In 1992, Yitzhak Rabin became Prime Minister following an election in which his party called for compromise with Israel's neighbors.[252][253] The following year, Shimon Peres on behalf of Israel, and Mahmoud Abbas for the PLO, signed the Oslo Accords, which gave the Palestinian National Authority the right to govern parts of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip.[254] The PLO also recognized Israel's right to exist and pledged an end to terrorism.[255] In 1994, the Israel–Jordan peace treaty was signed, making Jordan the second Arab country to normalize relations with Israel.[256] Arab public support for the Accords was damaged by the continuation of Israeli settlements[257] and checkpoints, and the deterioration of economic conditions.[258] Israeli public support for the Accords waned as Israel was struck by Palestinian suicide attacks.[259] In November 1995, while leaving a peace rally, Yitzhak Rabin was assassinated by Yigal Amir, a far-right-wing Jew who opposed the Accords.[260]

Under the leadership of Benjamin Netanyahu at the end of the 1990s, Israel withdrew from Hebron,[261] and signed the Wye River Memorandum, giving greater control to the Palestinian National Authority.[262]Ehud Barak, elected Prime Minister in 1999, began the new millennium by withdrawing forces from Southern Lebanon and conducting negotiations with Palestinian Authority Chairman Yasser Arafat and U.S. President Bill Clinton at the 2000 Camp David Summit. During the summit, Barak offered a plan for the establishment of a Palestinian state. The proposed state included the entirety of the Gaza Strip and over 90% of the West Bank with Jerusalem as a shared capital.[263] Each side blamed the other for the failure of the talks. After a controversial visit by Likud leader Ariel Sharon to the Temple Mount, the Second Intifada began. Some commentators contend that the uprising was pre-planned by Arafat due to the collapse of peace talks.[264][265][266][267] Sharon became prime minister in a 2001 special election. During his tenure, Sharon carried out his plan to unilaterally withdraw from the Gaza Strip and also spearheaded the construction of the Israeli West Bank barrier,[268] ending the Intifada.[269][270] By this time 1,100 Israelis had been killed, mostly in suicide bombings.[271] The Palestinian fatalities, from 2000 to 2008, reached 4,791 killed by Israeli security forces, 44 killed by Israeli civilians, and 609 killed by Palestinians.[272]

In July 2006, a Hezbollah artillery assault on Israel's northern border communities and a cross-border abduction of two Israeli soldiers precipitated the month-long Second Lebanon War.[273][274] On 6 September 2007, the Israeli Air Force destroyed a nuclear reactor in Syria. At the end of 2008, Israel entered another conflict as a ceasefire between Hamas and Israel collapsed. The 2008–09 Gaza War lasted three weeks and ended after Israel announced a unilateral ceasefire.[275][276] Hamas announced its own ceasefire, with its own conditions of complete withdrawal and opening of border crossings. Despite neither the rocket launchings nor Israeli retaliatory strikes having completely stopped, the fragile ceasefire remained in order.[277] In what Israel described as a response to more than a hundred Palestinian rocket attacks on southern Israeli cities,[278] Israel began an operation in Gaza on 14 November 2012, lasting eight days.[279] Israel started another operation in Gaza following an escalation of rocket attacks by Hamas in July 2014.[280] In May 2021, another round of fighting took place in Gaza, lasting eleven days.[281]

In September 2010, Israel was invited to join the OECD.[48] Israel has also signed free trade agreements with the European Union, the United States, the European Free Trade Association, Turkey, Mexico, Canada, Jordan, and Egypt, and in 2007, it became the first non-Latin-American country to sign a free trade agreement with the Mercosur trade bloc.[282][283] By the 2010s, the increasing regional cooperation between Israel and Arab League countries, with many of whom peace agreements (Jordan, Egypt) diplomatic relations (UAE, Palestine) and unofficial relations (Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, Morocco, Tunisia), have been established, the Israeli security situation shifted from the traditional Arab–Israeli hostility towards regional rivalry with Iran and its proxies. The Iran–Israel proxy conflict gradually emerged from the declared hostility of post-revolutionary Islamic Republic of Iran towards Israel since the 1979 Revolution, into covert Iranian support of Hezbollah during the South Lebanon conflict (1985–2000) and essentially developed into a proxy regional conflict from 2005. With increasing Iranian involvement in the Syrian Civil War from 2011 the conflict shifted from proxy warfare into direct confrontation by early 2018.

Geography and environment

Main articles: Geography of Israel and Wildlife of Israel

Satellite images of Israel and neighboring territories during the day (left) and night (right)

Israel is located in the Levant area of the Fertile Crescent region. The country is at the eastern end of the Mediterranean Sea, bounded by Lebanon to the north, Syria to the northeast, Jordan and the West Bank to the east, and Egypt and the Gaza Strip to the southwest. It lies between latitudes 29° and 34° N, and longitudes 34° and 36° E.

The sovereign territory of Israel (according to the demarcation lines of the 1949 Armistice Agreements and excluding all territories captured by Israel during the 1967 Six-Day War) is approximately 20,770 square kilometers (8,019 sq mi) in area, of which two percent is water.[284] However Israel is so narrow (100 km at its widest, compared to 400 km from north to south) that the exclusive economic zone in the Mediterranean is double the land area of the country.[285] The total area under Israeli law, including East Jerusalem and the Golan Heights, is 22,072 square kilometers (8,522 sq mi),[286] and the total area under Israeli control, including the military-controlled and partially Palestinian-governed territory of the West Bank, is 27,799 square kilometers (10,733 sq mi).[287]

Despite its small size, Israel is home to a variety of geographic features, from the Negev desert in the south to the inland fertile Jezreel Valley, mountain ranges of the Galilee, Carmel and toward the Golan in the north. The Israeli coastal plain on the shores of the Mediterranean is home to most of the nation's population.[288] East of the central highlands lies the Jordan Rift Valley, which forms a small part of the 6,500-kilometer (4,039 mi) Great Rift Valley. The Jordan River runs along the Jordan Rift Valley, from Mount Hermon through the Hulah Valley and the Sea of Galilee to the Dead Sea, the lowest point on the surface of the Earth.[289] Further south is the Arabah, ending with the Gulf of Eilat, part of the Red Sea. Unique to Israel and the Sinai Peninsula are makhteshim, or erosion cirques.[290] The largest makhtesh in the world is Ramon Crater in the Negev,[291] which measures 40 by 8 kilometers (25 by 5 mi).[292] A report on the environmental status of the Mediterranean Basin states that Israel has the largest number of plant species per square meter of all the countries in the basin.[293] Israel contains four terrestrial ecoregions: Eastern Mediterranean conifer-sclerophyllous-broadleaf forests, Southern Anatolian montane conifer and deciduous forests, Arabian Desert, and Mesopotamian shrub desert.[294] It had a 2019 Forest Landscape Integrity Index mean score of 4.14/10, ranking it 135th globally out of 172 countries.[295]

Tectonics and seismicity

Further information: List of earthquakes in the Levant

The Jordan Rift Valley is the result of tectonic movements within the Dead Sea Transform (DSF) fault system. The DSF forms the transform boundary between the African Plate

Источник: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Israel

U.S. President Donald Trump’s recognition of Jerusalem as the capital of Israel has sparked protests, isolated the United States internationally, challenged the legitimacy of its sponsorship of Palestinian–Israeli negotiations and hampered its declared strategic goals in the Middle East.

Protests against the position of US President Donald Trump from Jerusalem [Getty Images]

Introduction

On Wednesday, 6 December, President Trump declared Jerusalem as the capital of Israel and announced plans to move the US Embassy from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem. Not only did this move break away with the U.S. foreign policy tradition, which has for many decades avoided declaring Jerusalem as the capital of Israel in the absence of an Israeli–Palestinian peace agreement. Trump’s decision will break the international consensus on Jerusalem and contribute to prejudging an issue that was supposed to be addressed in the final negotiations between the two sides, with the potential of  fueling more tension in the region.

The Dispute over Jerusalem

After the 1948 war, Israel controlled the western part of Jerusalem, while the eastern part was under the Jordanian control,including  the Old City, Al-Aqsa Mosque and Dome of the Rock. After its victory in the Six-Day War in 1967, Israel annexed East Jerusalem and declared both parts, east and west, as its ‘united and eternal capital’. When Israel  adopted the Jerusalem Law in 1980, which declared Jerusalem ‘complete and united’ as the capital of Israel. However, the UN Security Council rejected this law and adopted Resolution 478, which categorized the Israeli move as a violation of international law and called on member states to withdraw their diplomatic missions from the city. In 2006, Costa Rica and El Salvador were the last two countries to move their embassy from Jerusalem to Tel Aviv. Before the U.S. decision, no other country had an embassy in Jerusalem.

After signing the Oslo Accords in 1993, the Palestinians hoped that the eastern part of the city would be their future capital. However, in 1995, the U.S. Congress passed a law to move the American Embassy from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem and recognised ‘Jerusalem as the capital of the State of Israel’. Since then, U.S. presidents (Bill Clinton, George W Bush, and Barack Obama) have refused to implement the resolution, signing presidential decisions to postpone its implementation every six months. Past U.S. administrations have argued that this delay was  to ‘protect the national security interests of the United States’ on the one hand; and on the other  to  pursue some balance as a tactic in dealing with the strained and fragile relations between the Palestinians and the Israelis.

Context of the Jerusalem Decision

Trump’s move has been expected since his presidential victory at the end of 2016.. His electoral platform included a key promise to move the U.S. Embassy from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem. After his winning the election , he did not conceal his resolve to keep his promise. He declared more than once that it was just a matter of time. In June 2017, Trump, like his predecessors, postponed the transfer of the embassy for six months, but last week the six-month deadline expired, and instead of renewing it, Trump decided to fulfil his promise and move the embassy.

A combination of complex factors played an important role in shaping Trump’s decision. Domestically, the investigations into the alleged Russian intervention in the U.S. elections were slowly approaching Trump’s team and some members of his administration. Recently, former national security adviser, Michael Flynn, was indicted for making a false statement to the FBI about Russia’s intervention in the 2016 presidential election. Investigations could also extend to Trump’s son-in-law , Jared Kushner, who is close to Israel as well as some of his cabinet members. This means that Trump is in an increasingly precarious situation and may try to push suspicions away from him or delay the debate over the issue. Under these circumstances, Trump is likely to seek the support of some influential Zionist lobbies in Washington. Another important factor is Trump’s desire of gratifying the wish of the Republican Party, especially the conservatives, and the evangelicals who  support the embassy’s transfer.. In addition, various individuals supported him, financially, politically and in the media as well, to win the presidency. Forn instance, billionaire Sheldon Adelson, donated $20 million to a pro-Trump political acrion committee with the objective of influencing the United States’s recognition of Jerusalem as the capital of Israel. Moving the embassy from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem is likely to boost  Trump’s popularity among these circles.

The internal situation in the United States was not the only factor that shaped Trump’s decision on Jerusalem. The current Arab and regional situation, which has undergone fragmentation, civil wars and collapse of the national state system. The Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), which has maintained a relatively stable political and economic position for a long time, especially after the siege of Qatar, has long been divided. Under these conditions, Trump and his administration were counting on absorbing the anger of his major Arab allies, especially Egypt and Saudi Arabia, which need U.S. support amidst their respective internal tensions. While Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman needs U.S. support to contain his internal opponents and inaugurate his leadership in the kingdom, Egyptian President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi seeks to renew his legitimacy and leadership next year by winning a second term. However, challenging Trump’s decision does not seem to be among the cards that these regimes can use.

Unrest and division are not limited to the Arab context, but extend also to regional powers, namely Turkey and Iran, thus reducing their options in confronting Trump’s decision. Iran is fighting alongside Bashar Asad’s forces  in the Syrian civil war.  It is also in a fragile negotiating position opposite the U.S. administration in maneuvering its nuclear program. Trump has threatened  to cancel the nuclear deal – a move supported by Saudi Arabia and UAE. Turkey is not in a better position  while facing several internal challenges, the most important of which is the Kurds’ aspirations to create an independent state on their southern border (Kurdistan) that could strengthen the Kurdish separatist forces in south-eastern Turkey.

Israel’s Gain

Israel welcomed Trump’s decision and called on other countries to follow the United States in moving their embassies to Jerusalem. The Israeli government also announced plans to build thousands of new housing units in settlements. Most likely, Israel will seek to legalise about 200 000 settlers living in East Jerusalem settlements, although their presence is illegal under international law. Consequently, Israel aims to strengthen its actions by imposing new facts that prove its sovereignty over the city, and make it difficult to overcome the reality on the ground in any future attempt to reach a settlement.

Of course, Israel’s policies will escalate to judaize the city and expel its Arab population, a pattern that has been ongoing since its occupation in 1967. Israel was able to isolate the city from its Palestinian natural environment  and impose racist judaizing Jewish policies on its own Arab population in order to force them to leave. Arab Jerusalemites live in overcrowded neighbourhoods, face difficulties in obtaining building permits, and suffer from systemic discrimination; three-quarters of them live below the poverty line. In 2015, Palestinians constituted 37 per cent of 850 000 people in Jerusalem, most of whom live in neighbourhoods in East Jerusalem. Israel seeks to reduce this number to a minimum by removing overcrowded neighbourhoods from the borders of Jerusalem and annexing them to other urban communities.

As Israel seeks to transform the city into a purely Jewish status, the city and its Arab residents suffer from the Palestinian Authority’s extreme neglect. Numerous Palestinian groups are responsible for maintaining the City ; however, they have frequent disputes.  The significance of Jerusalem has become a fading priority of the Palestinian Authority.

 America’s Isolation Trump’s decision  prevents the U.S. from playing an active role in the Palestinian–Israeli conflict, whereas , it has united almost the entire world, including some of its closest allies in the region, against the U.S. president.

Arab and Islamic countries have rejected the U.S. decision to varying degrees., The Arab League cautioned that any recognition of Jerusalem would be a blatant attack on the Arab nation. The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) met in Istanbul December 13, 2017  in a special session to coordinate an adequate response to Trump’s decision.

Apart from the United States, fourteen countries out of fifteen total members of the UN Security Council have confirmed their commitment to international law and relevant Security Council resolutions. The overwhelming majority of influential countries rejected Trump’s actions as detrimental to the peace process and to stability in the region. The most prominent position was highlighted by the Quartet, which consists of the United Nations, the European Union, Russia, besides the U.S. and was formed in 2002 to oversee the Middle East peace process. A few hours after the Trump speech, the UN secretary-general, Antonio Guterres,  argued against any unilateral actions that would threaten  the chances of reaching peace between Israelis and Palestinians. The EU also strongly rejected the U.S. decision in a statement issued by Federica Mogherini, High Representative of the European Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy.. both  German and French positions are apparent. French president, Emmanuel Macron, was the first Western president to reject Trump’s decision,  asserting that the final status of Jerusalem ought to be settled through negotiations. German chancellor, Angela Merkel, and British  Prime Minister, Theresa May, also opposed Trump’s decision. Similarly, Russia expressed concern that it would complicate the  regional situation in the Middle East.

Implications

Trump’s decision will have profound impact most likely on two overlapping levels.

The peace process and the internal Palestinian situation

The fate of the city of Jerusalem has been a vital and sensitive issue in the Palestinian–Israeli peace talks; its discussion has been postponed to the final-status negotiations due to its religious and political  significance of the various parties to the conflict. The change in the status quo, after Trump’s decision, will have a deep symbolic interpretation and will be considered a boost to Israeli sovereignty at the expense of Palestinian rights in the city.

With the exception of the United States, The international community has embraced a unified position that underscores the fate of Jerusalem to be determined by a final agreement between the Palestinians and the Israelis. However, it seems that reaching consensus, or even initiating  serious negotiations, is now out of the question. Since former US Secretary of State John Kerry’s efforts to revive bilateral negotiations between Palestinians and Israelis in 2014, no serious attempts have been made to reach a settlement. Palestinian president Mahmoud Abbas’s position and  legitimacy are at stake. To accept the negotiations under current conditionswould  undermine significantly the legitimacy of  Fatah and the Palestine Liberation Organisation, . Such legitimacy was based on more than twenty years of successive promises to establish a Palestinian state with Jerusalem as its capital. It is now more difficult to convince the Palestinian people with the possibility of a future solution that does not guarantee Jerusalem as the capital of  a Palestinian state. In the forseen future, Abbas will have to decide his options: either to continue the pursuit of the peace process or to exit. Mike Pence, U.S. vice president, is expected  to visit the region and meet with the Palestinian leadership. But Palestinian officials said he would not be welcomed. In the event he is not received, the U.S. administration will react negatively and possibly punish the PA. Thus, Abbas will most likely try to avoid this scenario by seeking to strike a balance between addressing Trump’s decision and maintaining  communication channels with his administration.

With the  contentious Palestinian street and  ongoing demonstrations since the Trump announced his decision, the internal Palestinian strategic calculations remains incredibly complex in light of the shifting balance of power between the two strongest movements in the Palestinian street: Fatah and Hamas. All Palestinian  factions , including Fatah and Hamas, have called on taking to the streets and protesting against the U.S. decision. Current and former politburo chief of Hamas Ismail Haniyeh and Khaled Mashal  have called for a new Palestinian uprising and  and end to the Oslo process by the Palestinian Authority’s withdrawal from the peace process. If Fatah agrees to lead ‘controlled’ popular protests against Trump’s decision, it is unlikely to develop into a popular uprising that could threaten the status and survival of the Palestinian Authority.  The the  pursuit of reconciliation between Fatah and Hamas remains an open-ended challenge.

Palestinians have  suffered from severe political, security and social divisions for more than ten years. Their negative effects have impacted all aspects of life, especially in the Gaza Strip, which has been subjected to fierce siege. Despite the efforts to of reunification of the West Bank and Gaza,  in the aftermath of the U.S. decision, it seems unlikely that the recent developments  will resolve this critical issue.

If the Palestinian president is controlled by the sensitive local, regional and international political calculations, ordinanry Palestinians have other options. Jerusalem remains  the heart of the Palestinian Muslim and Christian identity. The City was the direct cause of the Tunnel Riots in 1996, after the Israeli government opened a tunnel under the Al-Aqsa Mosque, as well as the year 2000 uprising that broke out after former Israeli prime minister, Ariel Sharon, visited Al-Aqsa Mosque compound, in addition to the Jerusalem Intifada (2015–2016), known as  ‘Knife Intifada’. In July 2017, Israeli plans to install security cameras at Al-Aqsa Mosque led to weeks-long unrest and confrontation. Palestinian demonstrations in Jerusalem mobilized the Arab and Israeli public opinion, which ultimately pressured the Israelis authorities to remove the cameras. The popular protests that followed Trump’s decision are likely to escalate in the coming days and weeks in the Palestinian villages cities, and refugee camps. Most likely, Hamas will push for a full-scale uprising, while the Palestinian Authority will try to keep it under control.

Regional and Internations Dynamics

Trump’s decision has directly linked   the regional and international dynamics on several levels.

The polarized Arab reality,  internal conflicts, and Arab-on-Arab wars have reduced both public and official reactions. As division in the Arab region increases and Arab populations focus on their immediate tragedies, the question of Palestine and Jerusalem becomes secondary. Therefore, it is impossible for the Arab states to put any effective pressure on the United States to withdraw the Jerusalem decision. .

With the declining Arab unified politics, , Thhe door remains open for other international actors to expand their influence in the region. The EU is currently afraid of re-igniting the Palestinian internal situation or increasing the polarisation and conflict in the Middle East, which may threaten the fragile status of many Arab countries, especially those adjacent to Israel: Lebanon, Jordan, Egypt, and Syria. The political environment in these countries is characterised by fragility and instability. Thus, European countries fear that the collapse of the status quo may trigger another influx of refugees into Europe. and may reinforce the collapse the European Union, which is witnessing sharp disagreements among member states  on the issue of receiving refugees, especially Muslims. The EU is likely to absorb the shock of the U.S. decision and address its consequences, while avoidimg the possibility of  another factor of instability in the region.

According to most estimates, Trump’s decision will gradually isolate the U.S. role in the peace process. This is a good point of entry into understanding Russia’s strong position vis-a-via Trump’s new policy. Russia may seek to market itself in the region at the expense of the interests of the U.S. , its traditional rival, by taking a more sympathetic position toward  the Palestinian/Arab aspirations in order to increase its influence and expansion in the region Its re-emergence on the international arena as a parallel power to the United States would be another part of the Russian strategy.  The visit of Russian President Vladimir Putin to Turkey and his talks with President Recep Tayyip Erdogan has apparently addressed the US decision in this context.

Similarly, one can interpret Iran’s position against Trump’s decision. As articulated by the supreme leader of the Islamic Republic of Iran, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei. Tehran’s position can be interpreted as a deliberate move to reconstruct its public image that has been damaged by the Iranian role in the Syrian civil war. Jerusalem presents an ideal opportunity for Iran and its allies (Hizbullah and the Syrian regime) to mobilise against the United States and improve their image in the eyes of the Sunni Muslim world . However, the escalation of Iran and its allies does not seem to go beyond the level of fiery statements because of Iran’s desire to maintain the nuclear deal with the United States, .

New Prospects

It seems that the Trump’s decision pre-phase and post-phase differ from each other.  The pre-phase was betting on a US-sponsored settlement option. The post-phase will diverge if the   the Palestinian people decide to build up their efforts to nullify the decision by activating popular resistance.

Trump’s decision and plans to change the status quo of Jerusalem will most likely be counterproductive. Any future role of the United States as a neutral mediator in the peace process will weaken further.   The strategic objectives set by the Trump administration in the Middle East will be compromised – namely, reaching a settlement that ends the Arab–Israeli conflict, fighting armed Islamist groups and controlling  the Iranian influence.

Источник: https://studies.aljazeera.net/ar/node/235

Tel Aviv

Tel Aviv is Israel’s cultural and commercial capital. Named “The Mediterranean Capital of Cool” by the New York Times, Tel Aviv is a city with a savvy attitude and cultural astuteness. “The city which never sleeps” is a center for nightlife, cuisine, culture, and liberalism. Bordered on one side by the Mediterranean and long stretches of sandy beaches, and on the other by glass towers housing technology companies in what is considered to be the world’s second most important hi-tech area, Tel Aviv has it all. Prominent museums, restored neighborhoods such as the ancient Port of Jaffa, Neve Tzedek and the White City of Bauhaus style buildings, and a young and diverse population, make Tel Aviv a city which you can never stop exploring.

tel aviv

A short history of Tel Aviv…

Tel Aviv was founded in 1909 as a suburb north of the ancient city of Jaffa, believed to be the oldest port in the world. The suburb grew and grew and eventually overtook Jaffa in size, merging with it after Israel’s independence to form a single municipality. Today, Old Jaffa is a pretty collection of quaint alleys in the southern part of the city, while downtown Tel Aviv lies at the heart of the Israeli hi-tech industry known as Silicon Wadi. The Tel Aviv Diamond Exchange, the largest diamond trading center in the world, is also situated in the city.

Immigrants have come to Tel Aviv from far and wide, bringing with them their own styles, cuisine, culture, and architecture. As such, no matter what you are after, you’ll be sure to find it here. Tel Aviv is world-renowned for its high-quality restaurants and a world-class cafe culture, as well as a superb nightlife scene.

Tel Aviv: Cultural Center

Tel Aviv’s cultural scene is rich and diverse diverse. Theaters, dance centers, and concert halls are found across the city. The city regularly hosts international musicians giving concerts in Israel, which is just some of the many events in Tel Aviv.

Tel Aviv also has a large number of museums and galleries, which are sprawled around the city – from the world-famous Tel Aviv Museum of Art to smaller, more specialist museums such as the Museum of the History of Tel Aviv-Yafo, and the Bauhaus Museum which tell the story of Tel Aviv, and in particular of its unique architecture.

In 2003, Tel Aviv was designated UNESCO World Heritage Status for its White City. This is an area around Rothschild Boulevard in the center of the city which has the world’s largest collection of international, Bauhaus, and eclectic styled buildings. The area is slowly being restored to its original glory and is the heart of the city to this day. To explore the area, we recommend joining a Tel Aviv architecture tour or Urban Tour, which explores the city’s architecture, street art and food.

Since the 1980s, gentrification has taken place in many of the formerly poor southern neighborhoods of the city to create what are now some of the trendiest quarters of this cool city. Among these are Neve Tzedek and Florentin. In Florentin you can find the Levinsky Market, one of the most exciting pedestrian-only streets to spend time at. Join the Levinsky Market and Cooking Workshop Tour to learn about local spices and foods and how to make Israeli dishes.

Other exciting areas to visit include Kerem Hateimanim, adjacent to the Carmel market and the Tel Aviv Port (Namal Tel Aviv) in the north of the city. Nearby, Park Hayarkon is a green oasis in the city.

During the 1990s,Tel Aviv developed into a hi-tech mecca, bringing with it new skyscrapers. The tallest of these, the Azrieli Center offers an observation gallery with views across this vibrant, modern city.

A visit to Tel Aviv wouldn’t be complete without a visit to the Tel Aviv Beach. Running the length of the city, from north to south, allots a view of the large hotels which dot the promenade. However, the real scene is not among the bigger hotels but rather in the city’s growing collection of unique, trendy, boutique hotels which are the hottest places to stay. Check out our guide to the best area to stay in Tel Aviv to understand the city’s layout better.

Exploring Tel Aviv

Exploring Tel Aviv is easy as the city isn’t big and sites are accessible. This is a city for walking or biking, with wide boulevards stretching from north to south, and with  bike rentals and scooters to rent on practically every block. If you want a more unique take on the city, join one of the many unique tours taking place in Tel Aviv – from cuisine to nightlife, architecture, and more. This Tel Aviv bucket list is a great starting point for visiting this metropolitan city.

Tel Aviv is also a great starting point for exploring other highlights of Israel, like Jerusalem, the Dead Sea, Masada, and the Galilee, and Petra. Tours starting from Tel Aviv are often the most convenient and cost-effective way to travel.

Источник: https://www.touristisrael.com/tel-aviv/33414/

Israel plans large settlement at shuttered Jerusalem airport

JERUSALEM (AP) — Israel is moving ahead with plans to build a massive Jewish settlement on the site of a long-abandoned airport that the Palestinians had hoped would one day service their future capital in east Jerusalem.

It’s one of several settlement projects that are advancing despite condemnation by the Biden administration, which along with the Palestinians and much of the international community views the settlements as an obstacle to resolving the century-old conflict.

The Atarot settlement would include 9,000 housing units marketed to ultra-Orthodox Jews, making it a “small city” of some 50,000 people next to three densely populated Palestinian communities, according to Hagit Ofran of the Israeli anti-settlement monitoring group Peace Now.

One of the Palestinian neighborhoods, Kufr Aqab, is within Jerusalem’s municipal boundaries but on the other side of Israel’s controversial separation barrier, a towering concrete wall that runs along the edge of the proposed site. The settlement would be right next to Qalandiya, the main military checkpoint between Jerusalem and the occupied West Bank city of Ramallah, through which tens of thousands of Palestinians travel each day.

And it would be built on what was once the runway of a century-old airport with a storied history, which today is abandoned and overrun by weeds, with crows nesting on the control tower.

“We are at the heart of a Palestinian urban area,” Ofran said. “If Israel builds here a settlement, we are blocking and torpedoing the possibility of an independent Palestinian state and a two-state agreement.”

Israel captured east Jerusalem in the 1967 war, along with the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, and annexed it in a move not recognized internationally. The Palestinians want all three territories to form their future state and for east Jerusalem to be their capital.

Israel considers all of Jerusalem to be its unified capital and views the settlements as Jewish neighborhoods built to meet the needs of a fast-growing population and to prevent the city from being divided.

“Jerusalem is a living, breathing, growing capital city of the state of Israel,” Deputy Mayor Fleur Hassan-Nahoum said. “The housing project will provide thousands of much needed housing units.”

An Israeli government official said the project is in the early stages of planning, and that it will likely be years before it comes up for government approval. The official spoke on condition of anonymity because the plan is still being discussed at the municipality level.

Ofran acknowledged it would be at least four years before construction begins, but said the planning process is well underway. A municipal committee voted in support of the project on Wednesday, and a district committee is expected to approve it Dec. 6.

“As soon as they approve it, it’s like a snowball,” Ofran said.

Hassan-Nahoum, the deputy mayor, noted that Israel has facilitated the construction of an industrial zone and a shopping mall nearby that cater to Palestinians.

But even if they can work and shop in Jerusalem, Palestinians suffer from a severe housing crisis rooted in a discriminatory permit system and lack of space. That has forced thousands to build without authorization — at risk of demolition — or move to the occupied West Bank. Dozens of Palestinian families face possible eviction by settler organizations pushing into crowded east Jerusalem neighborhoods.

Khalil Tufakji, a Palestinian cartographer and former peace negotiator focused on Jerusalem issues, said the new settlement is part of a larger process of pushing Palestinians out of the city and bringing in Jewish residents in order to change its character and prevent any future partition.

“It’s fundamental demographic change in favor of Israel,” he said.

At the southern edge of the planned settlement stands an abandoned control tower and terminal that were once part of a small but bustling international airport.

The British built a military airfield in the early 1920s, when Jerusalem was the administrative capital of the Palestine Mandate. Jordan captured the site along with the rest of east Jerusalem and the West Bank in the 1948 war surrounding Israel’s creation and transformed it into a civilian airport catering to religious pilgrims and other travelers.

In the 1950s and 1960s, tourists could shuttle between Jerusalem and destinations across Europe and the Middle East, including Rome, Beirut, Cairo, Damascus, and even cities in Saudi Arabia and Iran. Eldad Brin, an Israeli researcher who recently published a scholarly article on the airport, says it serviced 100,000 passengers in 1966.

Israel continued to use the airport after the 1967 war, but mainly for local and charter flights as major airlines refused to service occupied territory. The airport was closed down shortly after the second Palestinian intifada, or uprising, began in 2000 because of security concerns. Today its small baggage carousel is coated in dust, its floors littered with broken glass.

Brin sees the settlement project as a “great mistake,” and would prefer to see the shuttered airport converted to an open space and cultural center, with the old terminal restored and turned into a museum.

“I’m a romantic,” he said. “You have this very big area, in the heart of this vast Arab community,” where parks and recreational areas are nearly nonexistent. “And you have an historical building which should be listed for preservation. It’s all there.”

The Palestinians had hoped to one day re-open a Jerusalem international airport for the state of Palestine. But the continual expansion of settlements across east Jerusalem and the West Bank — which are now home to more than 700,000 settlers — has made it nearly impossible to envision the creation of a viable Palestinian state alongside Israel.

Israel’s current prime minister, Naftali Bennett, and the right-wing parties that dominate its political system, strongly support the settlements and are opposed to Palestinian statehood, even as most of the international community views a two-state solution as the only realistic way of resolving the conflict. There have been no substantive peace negotiations in more than a decade.

“There will be so such thing as the Jerusalem airport for the state of Palestine,” Tufakji said.

Источник: https://apnews.com/article/middle-east-religion-jerusalem-israel-42742f5ba4e89a788c19e09644ed4c7f
Detailed map of administrative control in Israel and the Palestinian territories (West Bank and Gaza Strip), including official and de facto capitals. Cities: Jerusalem, Ramallah, Gaza, Tel Aviv. Colorblind accessible.
Map by Evan Centanni. All rights reserved.

US recognizes Jerusalem as capital of Israel

This Wednesday, the United States government announced a new policyof recognizing Jerusalem as the capital of Israel. US president Donald Trump said the declaration's purpose was to "acknowledge the obvious", while also revealing plans to eventually move the US embassy in Israel to Jerusalem. These decisions were extremely controversial, to say the least. But why? We'll break it down for you:

What's the big deal?

Israeli law saysthe city of Jerusalem is the country's capital. But even Israel's closest ally, the US, has never officially accepted the city's capital status. And the world's countries generally haven't either: In fact, no country in the world has a proper embassyin Jerusalem. So the new move by the US is a major change of policy, and one that runs contrary to an established world consensus.

But is Jerusalem not the capital of Israel?

A country's capital is usually, but not always, defined as the city where its government is headquartered. And it's true that Jerusalem is both the official capital of Israel under the country's laws and the actual seat of the country's government, including the legislature, the prime minister, and the Supreme Court. So in that sense Jerusalem is indeed the capital of Israel, for practical purposes at the very least. But that doesn't mean other countries consider its status legally valid...

So why not recognize Jerusalem as Israel's capital?

Territory Name:  
• Jerusalem (English)
• Yerushalayim (Hebrew)
• al-Quds (Arabic)
Claimants: 
• Israel
• Palestine (east Jerusalem only)
Actual Control: Israel
Status: 
• Municipality in Israel (actual governance)
• Sub-district in Palestine (claimed; east Jerusalem only)
• Part of Jerusalem corpus separatum (claimed by much of international community)
It's rare for countries to dispute the status of each other's capitals. The sticking point here is that Arab leaders in the neighboring West Bank and Gaza Strip territories also claim Jerusalem as the capital of their declared State of Palestine.

Just making a competing claim isn't enough to inspire a worldwide boycott. But the thing is, the United Nations (UN) plan that first endorsed an independent Israel also said Jerusalem should be neutral ground between the Jewish country (now called Israel) and an Arab country (now called Palestine, though "Palestine" was originally a culturally-neutral name for the whole area).

The idea was that Jerusalem and the surrounding area, including the Christian holy city of Bethlehem, would be an internationally-governed neutral zone known as a "corpus separatum" (Latin for "separated body"). But Israel's 1948-1949 war of independence left western Jerusalem under Israeli control, and since the Six-Day War of 1967, Israel has controlled the whole area. The neutral Jerusalem plan may be as good as dead now, but many countries still support it in principle, even treating it as the official legal situation for diplomatic purposes.

Even if they do think neutral Jerusalem is a pipe dream, most countries still support a future where Arabs will get their independent Palestine alongside Israel, and that usually means Jerusalem would at least get divided up between the two countries. In fact, US president Trump made a point of acknowledging that possibility even as he controversially recognized the city as Israel's capital.

Flag of IsraelCountry Name:  
• Israel (English)
• Yisra'el (Hebrew)
• ʼIsrāʼīl (Arabic)
Full Declared Name:  
• State of Israel (English) 
• Medinat Yisra'el (Hebrew)
• Dawlat ʼIsrāʼīl (Arabic)
Capital: 
• Jerusalem (functioning but disputed)

Which other countries recognize Jerusalem as Israel's capital?

It's difficult to make a full list of countries that recognize Jerusalem's capital status, because there's no official register for them to record their positions in. Instead, we're stuck with looking at what their governments say, and trying to figure out what exactly they mean. 

Maybe the only two countries that seem to unconditionally accept Jerusalem's role as Israel's capital are Vanuatu, which reportedly recognized it earlier this year, and disputed Taiwan, which isn't even recognized as a country itself by most of the world. The Philippines has suggested it might move its embassy to Jerusalem, but doesn't seem to have made a formal statement of recognition.

Czechia (the Czech Republic) declared the day after Trump's speech that it recognizes West Jerusalem, but not the whole city, as the capital of Israel. Similarly, Russia's government has said it thinks East Jerusalem should become Palestine's capital, and "in this context we view West Jerusalem as the capital of Israel". This was reported in some media as a recognition, but Russia's government declared that this week's US announcement "defies common sense", so it seems unlikely that's what they meant.

Other countrieshave kept their statements vague or neutral, neither recognizing nor rejecting Jerusalem's claimed capital status.

Then where are all these countries' embassies, if they're not in Jerusalem?

Most countries, formerly including the US, don't recognize any particular city as being the capital of Israel. But all of their embassies are located in the city of Tel Aviv or its suburbs. In the early 1970s, there were 16 countries that did have their embassies in Jerusalem, but most of them left in 1980 after Israel claimed the city's disputed eastern half as part of its capital. By 2006, there were no more left. 

Even the US embassy is still in Tel Aviv for now, but President Trump says he plans to move it to Jerusalem eventually, maybe after another six months. If he does, it could be the first international embassy to return to Jerusalem, though several more countries might jump on the bandwagon.

Flag of PalestineClaimed Country Name:  
• Palestine (English)
• Filasṭīn (Arabic)
Full Declared Name:  
• State of Palestine (English)
• Dawlat Filasṭin (Arabic)
Capital: 
• Jerusalem (claimed; not controlled)
• Ramallah (administrative; Fatah faction)
• Gaza City (administrative; Hamas faction)
Most countries' representative offices to Palestine, on the other hand, are located near the Palestinian government headquarters in the West Bank city of Ramallah, or else in the coastal town of Gaza (ruled by a separate faction of the Palestinian government). In general, these offices aren't called "embassies" - either because the countries don't fully recognize Palestine as a country, or because they do recognize it but think the real embassies should be in Jerusalem.

But I thought some countries do have offices in Jerusalem

Yes, they do - ten countries, including the US, have "consulates-general" in Jerusalem. Usually a consulate-general is a regional office that serves under a national embassy, but these are special ones. The consulates-general in Jerusalem are officially representatives to the neutral "corpus separatum" area, not representatives to Israel. 

Because of that, they actually don't answer to their countries' embassies in Tel Aviv, instead reporting directly to their national governments. Despite their officially neutral status, most of them also act as their countries' representative officesto the Palestinian government in the West Bank.

At least Israel and the Jewish people must be happy about this, right?

Yes and no. Israel's conservative government enthusiastically supportedthe US recognition of Jerusalem as its capital, and many Israelis are celebrating. But some thinkit would have been better to wait until the Israeli-Palestinian conflict is resolved, and others don't think it should be a big deal. Some of the biggest Jewish groups in the USalso approved of the decision, but a big portion also disapproved. Many Palestinians, including Arab Christians, were furious with the symbolic gesture. This may or may not include Arab citizens of Israel, most of whomconsider themselves Israelis but disagree with aspects of the country's governance.

Источник: https://www.polgeonow.com/2017/12/jerusalem-israel-capital-recognition.html

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