I m feeling curious animals -
The SGU Pulse
While plenty of individuals have a fondness for animals, those who love them as much as you do tend to stand out. Instead of ignoring a lost cat wandering around the neighborhood, you take in the feline and try to find its owner. Notice a littered local pond? You start a clean-up initiative to help wildlife flourish.
Your commitment to caring for animals has always made you curious about becoming a veterinarian. That passion can lead to a rewarding career regardless of what sparked your initial interest.
For Dr. Lucas White, a Veterinarian at Sunset Veterinary Clinic, James Herriot’s books were partially responsible for igniting a desire to work with animals. “I was also fascinated watching veterinarians work on my own animals and solve a problem for them without them being able to talk,” Dr. White adds.
But being a veterinarian is much more than playing with pets and performing routine check-ups. You may need to develop business skills or work to improve relationships. Keep reading to uncover some of the things current practitioners think everyone should know before pursuing veterinary medicine.
8 truths experts reveal about becoming a veterinarian
1. Interacting with people is part of the job
Becoming a veterinarian might seem like the perfect way to pursue a career in medicine without having to interact with humans, but that’s not really the case. “Your love of animals must be accompanied by an equal love of people,” says Dr. Audrey Wystrach, co-founder and COO of ZippiVet. “You will spend far more time communicating with pet owners than pets.”
It makes sense when you think about it. Any information about treatments and medical history has to be communicated between the veterinarian and the pet owner. No dog or cat is going to be able to verify whether their vaccinations are up-to-date.
“You will spend far more time communicating with pet owners than pets.”
2. You’ll learn an astonishing amount of material during vet school
Veterinary school is among the most challenging postgraduate paths you can take. No matter how successful you were during college, you should expect to work even harder. Dr. Wystrach says it was a steep learning curve, but doable. “The volume of information that one person can assimilate in four years is almost unimaginable,” she says.
“The volume of information that one person can assimilate in four years is almost unimaginable,”
Successfully absorbing so much information requires diligent study habits. “It takes a high level of commitment, but it’s only temporary and worth it in the end,” Dr. White says. But don’t let these insights intimidate you — just being aware of the challenging journey ahead will help you be even more prepared and determined to reach your destination.
3. Nothing goes as planned when working with animals
Working with pet owners is a crucial part of being a good veterinarian, but maintaining such communication can’t guarantee every visit will work out as planned. Maybe a piece of equipment in the exam room spooks a dog. Or you may find yourself treating a cat that’s anxious around unfamiliar faces.
“The unique challenge of veterinary medicine is that there is never anything that happens according to plan,” Dr. Wystrach explains. “To expect the unexpected on a daily basis has become my mantra.”
“The unique challenge of veterinary medicine is that there is never anything that happens according to plan,”
4. Nontraditional backgrounds abound in veterinary school
What was the most surprising part of veterinary school for Dr. Wystrach? “The variety of prior jobs and experiences of all my classmates,” she notes. Aside from the shared goal of pursuing a veterinary career, students can be quite different. This means you have no reason to worry that your pre-vet path could hinder your performance.
5. Your career may evolve over time
Though having a general idea of what you’d like to do can help as you complete veterinary school, don’t be surprised if your plans change as your career progresses. Dr. White initially intended to be a mixed-animal practitioner, then eventually switched his focus to smaller creatures. “Large-animal medicine is equally fun and challenging, but it just did not fit with my future plans,” he explains.
Dr. Wystrach’s journey has been even more varied. She spent 15 years practicing equine and small-animal medicine in a combination hospital-mobile concept, transitioned to three years focusing solely on house calls, and then spent another three years in corporate practice before settling into her current role.
“Careers and focuses change,” Dr. Wystrach says. “I am a believer that you are responsible for your own destiny and can create or find the practice model that suits you.”
“I am a believer that you are responsible for your own destiny and can create or find the practice model that suits you.”
6. You need to be business savvy
You’ll find yourself with plenty of company if you have dreams of owning and operating some sort of clinic. Information from the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) shows most veterinarians choose private-practice careers. One thing to keep in mind is that business acumen is crucial for these types of roles.
Given the chance to go back in time, Dr. Wystrach says she would “Take as many business classes as possible.” She also suggests students consider pursuing an MBA in addition to a DVM. You might even look into the possibility of obtaining a combined DVM/MBA degree.
“Take as many business classes as possible.”
7. You need to plan for school expenses
Veterinary school is a costly but worthwhile expense for students committed to caring for animals. You should think of it as an investment and prepare accordingly. “Have plans in place to be able to pay for school or pay back student loans without sacrificing quality of life,” Dr. White recommends.
Most students don’t have the funds available to pay for veterinary school out of pocket, so loans are generally a necessity. Make sure you attend a program that participates in the federal student loan program. Check Federal Student Aid’s running list and be sure to contact your intended program for more information.
“Have plans in place to be able to pay for school or pay back student loans without sacrificing quality of life,”
8. You’ll forge lifelong friendships
Making friends during veterinary school is almost a given. Dr. White was surprised by how much he connected with his colleagues in school. “I have a lot of good friends from vet school that I still keep in touch with,” he says.
So while the journey through vet school will be a challenging one, rest assured that you’ll have plenty of cohorts to help get you through. And once you all come out the other side, you’ll have a built-in network of professional contacts to provide encouragement and guidance throughout your career.
Explore your options
You clearly have to consider a number of factors when deciding whether becoming a veterinarian is the right choice for you. Think about your career goals, and what it will take to achieve them. If you have the drive and passion, then veterinary medicine could be a great fit.
If you’re interested in pursuing a career as a vet, it might be time to start thinking about the path you’ll need to follow. Attending veterinary school is a huge part of the process. Learn more about the specific requirements by reading our article, "The Vet School Requirements Aspiring Animal Doctors Need to Know About."
92. Atlantic wolf fish are terrifying predators reaching up to 5 feet in length.
They have very sharp teeth and a powerful bite, making them powerful predators. They use this bite force to crush the hard shells of molluscs and crustaceans.
93. The wood frog spends 7 months of the year frozen.
These Alaskan frogs freeze almost completely at the start of winter, with two-thirds of their body water turning into ice. To all intents and purposes, they seem dead; their heart stops beating, and their blood flow stops. However, once winter starts to thaw so do they and they hop back to life.
94. Certain animals have anti-freeze proteins that allow them to survive extreme temperatures.
These anti-freeze proteins prevent water in the cells of the animals from crystalising and forming ice. Examples of animals with this superpower include the winter flounder and the eelpout.
95. Honeypot ants swell up to a huge size with food.
Honeypot ants have to be seen to be believed. During wet season, certain ants consume huge amounts of nectar, making their abdomens swell up to the size of a grape. Then, during dry season, they provide the other ants with food by throwing the nectar back up again. Yum!
96. The lesula, discovered in 2007, has giant human like eyes and a blue bottom.
This relatively newly discovered monkey lives in the Congo. Their eyes are very distinctive because of their human-like appearance, as are their bright blue bums.
97. The Donald Trump caterpillar looks identical to the ex-president’s hair.
This species of caterpillar, prior to 2016, was known as the Flannel Moth Caterpillar (Megalopyge opercularis). It gained popularity as it is very furry and bright orange, giving it an uncanny resemblance to Trump’s hair (wig?). This ‘fur’ however, is actually composed of multiple venomous ‘hairs’. Grabbing hold of one of these caterpillars is a painful experience.
98. Frilled sharks are 2-meter-long living fossils that eat their prey whole.
They are considered living fossils, meaning they’ve gone unchanged for a long period of time and most of their closest relatives can only be found in the form of fossils. They get their names from their “frilly” gills and they are predators which swallow their prey whole.
99. Giant vampire bats lived 100,000 years ago and had a wingspan of 50cm (20 inches).
These giant bats were roughly 30% larger than the modern vampire bats. The remains of one were recently found in a cave in Argentina.
100. There are an estimated 8.7 million species on earth and more than 80% of them are undiscovered.
Based on current data, complex statistics, and models we can predict how many species there are on Earth, telling us how many are still left to be found. It will likely take another 500 years to find them all.
Though zoos were originally created mostly to satisfy people’s curiosity about the exotic—and perhaps to demonstrate the status of the person or institution that created the zoo—in the modern era, zoos have a serious mission as conservation organizations. Many of them have on-site programs to protect species in the wild as well as breeding programs to maintain healthy captive populations. Many zoos also consider conservation education to be an important part of their mission, and hope to encourage positive attitudes toward biodiversity conservation among their visitors.
Traditionally, education has been conceived as simply a matter of conveying information. Zoos are no exception in this approach, hence the often-boring and underutilized signs attached to exhibits, describing an animal’s habitat and lifestyle in the wild as well as whether or not their species is endangered. But conveying information is actually one of the least important things zoos can do. After all, information is easily available in classrooms and on the internet. What zoos can, distinctively, provide is the direct experience of nonhuman animals. Such experiences have two psychologically important characteristics: they are vivid and emotionally rich, and they are typically shared with others.
Psychological research has shown that vivid, emotional experiences not only attract more attention, they are also better remembered. The scary, funny, or awe-inspiring animal exhibits at the zoo encourage people to pay more attention to information about the animals (including information about their conservation status) than they would pay to a written description. The multisensory, unscripted nature of the encounter provides experiences that a video can’t. People remember when the animal did something unexpected, like catching a squirrel or playing with a stick. In addition to sights and sounds, even the smells (though possibly unpleasant) add to the multisensory richness of the experience.
The vast majority of zoo visitors attend in social groups, with family members or on school field trips. Social interactions are thus a key part of the zoo visit. And when people are looking at the animals, there seems to be almost an automatic tendency to share the experience with others. In my research at zoos, I found that almost nine out of ten visitors would share their observations of an animal by pointing it out to their companions, or simply by saying “look!” Our first impulse when we see an animal is often to make sure that someone else is also watching.
Social interactions like these are opportunities to create and communicate shared values. Indeed, some parents say they deliberately use the zoo visit to talk to their children about the value of nature and the importance of caring for wild animals. Even parents and teachers who are less deliberate about the moral lessons are communicating an important message: that animals have value, that they are interesting, and that they are worth our time and regard. Every parent who stands in front of an animal exhibit and says “Isn’t he beautiful!” or “The mommy is looking after her baby,” or even “Look at that!” is giving their child a reason to care about the animal.
Not all interactions will be equally effective in creating caring. People can, and do, look at the animals in objectifying ways, making fun of their appearance or even insulting them. (One of my research assistants once came to me, upset, when she overheard some visitors say “Hey, fatty ugly Polar Bear!”) There is evidence that exhibit design can encourage a more or a less respectful attitude toward the animal. An old-fashioned exhibit in which the animal is behind bars, perhaps in a concrete cage, and the visitor may be looking down on the animal may lead people to take a less sympathetic, more objectifying perspective. After all, the implicit message of such an exhibit is that it is acceptable to take an animal out of its natural habitat and put it in an uncomfortable environment merely for humans to observe.
An exhibit that shows respect and concern for the animal may encourage the visitors to feel a similar level of concern. Evidence that the zoo has spent time considering the animals’ needs, not just for food but for intellectual stimulation and social interactions (where relevant), reminds the visitor that animals have such needs: that they are thinking entities with their own experiences and not just objects for human entertainment.
Beyond demonstrating respect, the ideal zoo exhibit would encourage something we could call empathy or connection. Many exhibits do this already by calling the visitors’ attention to the things they have in common with the animals on display. Exhibit signs remind people that the animals play, sleep, and have families; they inform us of interesting facts like “gorillas have fingerprints too” or “wolves mate for life.” These signs encourage us to take the perspective, in some brief and limited way, of the animal on display. We recognize some similarity or shared experience, even if it’s only the experience of being hungry and then having that hunger satisfied.
Our perceptions of similarity matter. In general, similarity to other people is associated with increased empathy and willingness to help. Likewise, people have more regard for animals with whom they feel a degree of similarity. People who anthropomorphize animals show more concern about them.
Zoos can foster a culture of conservation; in fact, zoo-goers tend to show more environmental concern and care than the average person. But it’s not a foregone conclusion. The way zoos present the animals who live within can elicit positive or negative responses from visitors. The best exhibits will be ones that situate the animal in its natural habitat; that demonstrate concern for the animal’s needs; that stimulate conversations expressing appreciation for the animal; and that, in some cases, remind the visitor of what they have in common with the animal. Under these, ideal, circumstances, zoos can help to prevent the disappearance of wild animals from our sight and from our minds.
Published on 12 February 2016
Photo by Jim Schulz, Chicago Zoological Society.
Whitmore-Williams Professor of Psychology and chair of Environmental Studies - College of Wooster
Susan Clayton is Whitmore-Williams Professor of Psychology and chair of Environmental Studies at the College of Wooster. Her PhD, in social psychology, is from Yale University. She co-authored the American Psychological Association (APA) reports on “Psychology and Global Climate Change” and “Psychological Impacts of Climate Change.
How can zoos and aquariums foster cultures of care and conservation?Источник: https://www.humansandnature.org/learning-to-care-about-animal-conservation
We all believe our dog is intelligent but have we really given them enough credit for just how smart they are? It turns out our dogs know a lot more about us than we realize. Here’s a list of 16 things your dog knows about you:
1. I know when you’re going out of town.
If you’re anything like me, you hate leaving your dog for a vacation or even one night at a friend’s house, but trust me, your dog hates it too.
They dread your departure so much that they’ve learned the signs of when you’re about to go – such as pulling out your suitcase. Dogs will associate this action with the next action they know, which is usually you leaving them for an extended period of time (they learn very well through association).
This is why you’ll see your dog’s behaviour change when you’re packing up, as they slink into the corner in a mild depression, getting ready for your imminent departure.
Don't want to leave your dog at home? Dogtipper.com offers tons of great content on doggie travel tips to help you prepare!
If you ARE bringing your dog with you, be sure to prepare for unexpected messy adventures along the way without your regular groomer available to clean them up. Grab a Dog Belly Cover and Dog Leggings to keep them clean and fresh longer so they're looking their best on your travels!
Otherwise, give them lots of love and tell them you’ll be home soon (they can understand what you’re saying, I swear...keep reading for proof).
2. I speak your language.
The American Psychological Association wrote about leading canine researcher, Stanley Coren’s study stating that dogs have an intelligence level of a 2-year-old human. Coren said, “the average dog can learn 165 words, including signals, and the ‘super dogs’ (those in the top 20 percent of dog intelligence) can learn 250 words.” This means that your dog can understand a lot more than we give them credit for!
I’m sure some of you are sitting at home wondering why your dog doesn’t always respond to you considering how much they understand. Dogs are just like humans and sometimes they simply don’t want to listen – especially older dogs who have earned the right to have selective hearing (if ya know what I mean).
Beyond the occasional 'selective hearing', your dog may need some proper training. For some good pointers on where to start, check out Little Dog Tips' post, "How to Get Your Dog to Pay Attention to You Outside".
3. I can smell when you’re sick.
As we all know, dogs have a more heightened sense of smell than humans (anywhere from 10,000 to 100,000 times more heightened to be exact – depending on the breed), but what exactly are they smelling when they sense our health is in trouble?
Many researchers believe they’re smelling Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) that are being generated from our ill bodies. According to Animal Planet, there was a study done in Japan in 2011 where dogs sniffed the breath samples from humans that had colorectal cancer to see if they could detect the disease. This study resulted in an astonishing 98% accuracy rate in detecting the diseased patients.
Various other studies have shown that dogs have been similarly successful in detecting other types of diseases in humans. Who knew the best detection for cancer was man’s best friend.
4. I know when you’re playing favourites!
It’s no secret that humans can sense inequality but studies show dogs are able to sense and react to that same emotion.
Friederike Range from Austria conducted a study where two dogs were instructed to “give their paw”, to which they happily obliged, until the researcher began rewarding only one dog while the other was left unrewarded. The dog that was not rewarded quickly recognized it was being treated unfairly and eventually stopped responding to the command.
NPR.org said, “Dogs have an intuitive understanding of fair play and become resentful if they feel that another dog is getting a better deal.”
5. I know when you’re cheating on me!
Much like the idea above that dogs can feel unfairness, they can also feel jealousy. Many dog owners have gone through the experience of bringing a new member into the family, such as a baby or boyfriend/girlfriend and noticed the changes in their dog.
When your dog is used to being the one and only important being in your life, it can be difficult for them to feel that they have to share their time with you.
Their feelings of jealousy can make them act out in aggression or other behavioural changes. Dogthusiast.com gives lots of insight on dealing with these behaviour problems - learn more from them if you're experiencing this with your pooch.
My two cents (I'm no professional) is to be sure to show your dog they’re still important to you and try to encourage group bonding to assure them these changes mean more love and attention, not less.
6. I know when you’re not looking and how to take advantage of it.
For the most part, dogs will do anything they can to keep their owner happy, but much like the old saying “we’re only human”, the same goes for dogs.
Your dog is so intent on keeping you happy that they would never hop up on the table and sneak some treats…while you’re looking.
According to many sources, “Researchers tested the willpower of several dogs by setting treats down in front of them and then forbidding the dogs to approach the food. As soon as the researchers left the room, every one of the dogs inhaled the food in an instant.”
So, in case you don’t already have them, it’s time to gets eyes on the back of your head!
7. I know when you’re letting me get my way.
Just like kids, dogs will always try to push their boundaries. They’re constantly testing situations to see where they fall in the hierarchy pyramid.
As much as we love our dogs and often have a hard time saying no, it’s imperative that you stick to your rules and let them know who’s boss. If you don’t, it will result in…well…a bratty, spoiled dog.
They’ll believe they’re the alpha and have no problem taking advantage of their new-found freedom (much like some kids I know).
8. I can tell when you’re pregnant.
We already learned that dogs can sniff out when you’re sick, so why wouldn’t they be able to sniff out when you’re expecting?
Technically there is no scientific proof behind this one, but numerous pregnant women have recounted their stories of behavioural changes in their dog during pregnancy.
Many believe they can smell the hormonal changes in your body and as a result they become very protective – nuzzling up to the baby bump, escorting the woman everywhere she goes, and more – as if they’re protecting their own little ones.
The loyalty of a dog never ceases to amaze me!
9. I can tell when you’re feeling blue and I want to help.
If you’re a dog owner, you probably won’t even need the proof for this one but just for the novelty of it, I’ll explain.
According to the journal Animal Cognition (as reported by Live Science), studies were conducted to prove this theory by testing the reaction of dogs observing humans that were crying, humming and talking. The results showed that dogs were more likely to approach the people that were crying.
Psychologist Deborah Custance who was one of the researchers said, "The fact that the dogs differentiated between crying and humming indicates that their response to crying was not purely driven by curiosity. Rather, the crying carried greater emotional meaning for the dogs and provoked a stronger overall response than either humming or talking."
So, as much as we already knew this, our favourite creatures really do comfort us when we need it the most.
For more amazing stories, Modern Dog Magazine has a whole "Inspire" section on their website, with beautiful stories on the true power and impact of dogs' love and loyalty.
10. I know when you’re being rude and I’m not impressed.
This strikes me as a pretty interesting point because it shows how advanced a dog’s emotional capabilities really are.
A study showed that a group of dogs who observed other people being rude to their owners actually resulted in the dogs negatively evaluating that person who mistreated their owner.
There really isn’t much else to say other than, simply put, be kind to one another – at least for the sake of your pooch!
11. I know when we’re going to the vet – please don’t make me!
Many dog owners will agree with this one. We never know exactly why, but for some reason our pooches can always tell the difference between a car ride going to the vet versus driving to the trails for a nice afternoon hike. Well, I’m sorry to say this, but it’s actually your fault.
Dogs can read body language so well that they know when you’re loading them in the car for the dreaded vet trip because they read the signs you’re showing them.
It’s hard for you to hide this, but easy enough to get them used to the vet by taking them there with a more pleasant visit in mind (rather than the usual uncomfortable shots or tests). This way they can get used to the vet’s environment and feel more comfortable on future visits.
If you're curious about some minor pet health questions and would like to skip the vet visit, Pawsitively Pets has loads of info on both physical and mental pet health topics (and it's legit because it was started by a former veterinary technician, Ann Staub).
12. I know if you’re a good soul because I’m a good soul.
Many of us believe our dog is the best indicator to detect good people from bad people, and as it turns out, that’s actually true.
Kind-hearted, good people actually give off an aura of good energy, which our dogs can read. This aura is due to the fact that “the heart, like the brain, generates a powerful electromagnetic field”, as explained by McCraty in The Energetic Heart. Dogs can sense this magnetic field which is why they’re drawn to people with better energy, or good souls.
I will forever trust my dog’s instincts!
13. I can tell when you’re in love (or not).
Even though dogs get jealous, as explained above, they can also sense when you love that person that’s making them jealous (or when you don’t).
As we all know, the feeling of love is a series of chemicals released in our bodies, known as dopamine and serotonin.
A different set of chemicals is released when you feel hatred or resentment towards someone and your dog can sense that too!
Be careful – if they know you don’t like someone, they may try to protect you from them which could result in some bad behavioural changes in your pooch.
14. I know a generous person when I meet them.
You caught me, there’s a theme here – dogs are very emotionally in tune with humans (and other animals). That being said, it comes as no surprise that they can tell when you’re being generous and when you’re being stingy.
A study was done by the University of Milan where dogs observed two sets of people in an eerily real-world situation. One group gave a homeless person food generously, while the other group aggressively responded to the homeless person, telling him to leave.
After the dogs observed this, both groups of people called them over at the same time, however the majority of the dogs only responded to the generous group of people.
The lesson here is pretty obvious – treat people well – for the love of your dog and others.
15. I know where you were today!
A dog’s sense of smell is much more powerful than us humans (as I mentioned earlier), which makes it very easy for your dog to keep tabs on you!
We pick up VOCs (Volatile Organic Compounds) on our clothes, hands, and everywhere else, that our dogs can easily sniff out. This means they know when we’ve been to the grocery store, gone for a walk without them, and especially when we’ve visited a friend who has a pooch of their own.
It’s good to let your dog sniff these wonderful smells when you come home as it helps them stay familiar with our ever-changing scents.
16. I know your schedule – don’t be late!
Ever wonder how your dog knows everyday when you’ll be home? It’s probably not because they’re sitting at the door waiting for you all day, but because dogs are great associative learner’s.
Matt Shipman from NC State University said, “A dog can learn to recognize the sound of a specific car and anticipate the arrival of the person associated with that car (such as the dog’s owner).”
Shipman further explains, “if you take the subway and usually get home at 5:30, the dog may be triggered by the local bus that drives by every day at 5:25.”
As much as I’d like to think my dog is psychic, it seems he’s simply outsmarted me…again.
Don’t Forget To Treat Your Pup
If you want to treat your dog, why not buy a dog coat and matching dog leggings? They’re great
Just like us, we’re sure your pup would appreciate a selection of waterproof dog coats to show off to the neighbouring dogs you see out and about. Dogs don’t like being cold and wet either, so don’t let them become uncomfortable! Not only that, but a coat and socks for dogs will stop them spreading mud and water around the house when you get back! No more cleaning the whole house after every walk!
Great dogs deserve only the best quality clothing, accessories, and toys, so choose T.O. Dogswear for the most stylish dog winter coats online. Our dog clothing available online is functional, comfortable, and attractive, and is great at protecting your dog from the elements, no matter the breed. We make sure that your doggies will get their walks come rain or shine!
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87. Yaks are specially adapted to high altitudes, with a huge lung capacity and small red blood cells.
Native originally to Tibet, these giant oxen-like animals live at high altitudes in the Himalayas (4,000–6,000 metres). They are specifically adapted to the low oxygen levels with a lung capacity that is ~3 times that of normal cattle, and have smaller red blood cells to improve oxygen transport.
88. Cuvier’s Beaked whales are one of the deepest diving mammals and can collapse their lungs to survive the high pressure.
One of the deepest diving mammals, one individual was recorded diving down to 2,992 m (9,816ft) below the surface. The pressure at these depths is so high that in order to survive it they have to collapse their lungs.
89. Orangutans are the heaviest tree-dwelling animals.
There are three species of orangutan and adult males of all three typically weigh around 75kg (165lb) while females are ~37 kg (82 lb). They are ~1.5m(5ft) tall and have a huge arm span of ~2m (6ft). They spend most of their time up in the canopy, making them the heaviest tree-dwelling animal.
90. Chimpanzees are very intelligence and make all kinds of tools.
For example, some use long sticks to fish out termites from their mounds. Others have been recorded creating “spears” to hunt bushbabies!
91. Shrike’s impale their prey on sticks to save them for later.
Also known as “butcherbirds” they are famous for being fairly brutal songbirds. They catch all kinds of animals, including crickets, lizards, and small birds, and impale them on sticks to save them for later.
Materials provided by University of Bristol. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.
Cite This Page:
University of Bristol. "Birds Can Tell If You Are Watching Them -- Because They Are Watching You." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 5 May 2008. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/04/080430075912.htm>.
University of Bristol. (2008, May 5). Birds Can Tell If You Are Watching Them -- Because They Are Watching You. ScienceDaily. Retrieved November 26, 2021 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/04/080430075912.htm
University of Bristol. "Birds Can Tell If You Are Watching Them -- Because They Are Watching You." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/04/080430075912.htm (accessed November 26, 2021).