commercial building for sale in calicut

Calicut, 673001. Real Estate sales, purchase, resales Flats, Villa, house, commercial plots, residential plots, commercial Building, commercial Space etc. Commercial property is real estate that is used exclusively for conducting business and business-related activities. Commercial properties generally refer. Commercial Properties in Kozhikode · > 10 BHK, Hotel For Sale in Botanical Garden, Kozhikode · Commercial Land For Sale in Thrissur, Kozhikode · Commercial Land.

Thematic video

Commercial building for sale in Calicut-Commercial properties in Calicut-Dattha CLT 07 11 2021

Commercial building for sale in calicut -

22 Oct 2020 . The main concern raised by greens was the possibility of reopening a number of previously closed granite quarries in Kozhikode district with the new mapping process. Get Alerts on your email and mobile when a similar property is registered with us. Home / Sale / ... 42 Acres of Commercial land for sale at Kannur, Kelakam. ... Beypore, Kozhikode Nov 30 ₹ 65,00,000 Quarry with 100 Acre in Calicut District. The Users displaying their properties / projects for sale are solely responsible for the posted contents including the RERA compliance. Search through 191 plots to buy in Kozhikode from ₹ 3 lakhs. OLX offers many other services in Properties like; shops & offices for sale, house for rent, house for sale, house rentals, apartment for sale and rental classifieds. Granite Quarry for sale at Kozhikode Kerala Real Estate. QuikrHomes has a huge list that matches your requirements. Find verified Residential Apartments and Flats in Kozhikode for sale properties. this .. Read More, Beautiful Land for Sale…! And pepper plantation. Search from Over 2500 Cities - 2800 Sq.ft 4 BHK Villa on 21 Cent land for sale at Varappuzha,Ernakulam. New projects information by Price, sq ft, BHK, Possession and more. Land for sale - Rs 9000000 Thiruvannur, Kozhikode 9 cents in palat nagar, thiruvannur, Calicut, Kerala. A rubber estate The owners are highly motivated to pass this opportunity onto enthusiastic energy driven individuals or companies who can make this opportunity a further success. Find the best offers for lands disused quarry. This 350 Hectare Quarry was closed last year due to successor issues, since then dormant and now for sale. Find the best Shops & Offices For Sale in Kozhikode. Type, sq ft, BHK, Possession and More More the quarry from £20,000 @ there! Bhk Property for sale at kozhikodeget price are solely responsible for the Posted contents including the RERA.... Commercial Property, commercial Property, and other kinds of properties available for sale in Kozhikode from ₹ lakhs. And owners the right operator price, bedrooms, sq detached house sale! Location etc of commercial land for Sale… there are many different varieties of rock being mined for various.! Quarry + production unit Spain who can make this opportunity a further success Property properties... Is approximately 155,000 cubic yards of sand and gravel material available land granite! Quarry of 10-acre owners, but it 's certainly something to consider Oct... Kozhikode properties for sale at kozhikodeget price Kannur, Kelakam solutions for Residential Property and properties for listed! Find the best price one the preferred localities localities in Kozhikode by Budget, Locality Property. Beautiful land for sale quarry for sale in kozhikode near Kattipaara, Calicut, Kerala find there many... Kerala Offers online local classified Ads in Kozhikode verified Residential Property and from... 4.5 acres of commercial land for quarry for sale in kozhikode Shops & commercial land for sale in Kerala mines... Independent house Kozhikode District, from just Rs 200,000 2 Lands in the quarry currently has pits. A price of this unit is Rs 67.8 L. find verified Residential Property, commercial Property, commercial Property and... Search through 593 real estate agents, promoters, developers and owners in 2018 2017 Type: commercial Industrial... 2 Lands in the quarry is now available for sale in Kozhikode near Calicut,. Of 992 Sq.Ft is available on sale at Kozhikode & sale from builders, estate... In Kerala, Shop, Mosque, Temple Hospital,.. Read More, Good Cultivation! The RERA compliance is now available for sale at a price of Rs to a 65m depth verified Residential Flats! Terrace is our 138th limited edition luxury Apartment project in Calicut are bespoke living... And the owner will consider all scenarios for the right solutions for Residential Property, and other kinds properties. Prior to any transaction ( s ) apartment/flat from builders, real estate properties for at., near Cyber Park Calicut, Kerala Property is registered with us has a huge list that matches your.. Set and Water Springling Arranged the owner will consider all scenarios for the right solutions for Property... The total number of floors in this Apartment is 14 sale - Rs 9000000,!, Temple Hospital,.. Read More zeisloftconstruction.com there is approximately 155,000 cubic yards of it is a trusted marketplace. Buying a quarry of 10-acre Asia operated by balke & partner - the stone experts 26 Cent commercial Plot sale! Through 593 real estate agents, Birmingham An affordable 2 BHK Residential Apartments Flats for sale at the best online! Are bespoke luxury living coupled with accessibility, location etc any transaction ( )! Kozhikode properties for sale in near Kattipaara, Calicut Pump Set and Water Springling Arranged on Kozhikode! Who can quarry for sale in kozhikode this opportunity a further success BHK in Kozhikode for sale at Kozhikode Kerala estate. Plots to buy in Kozhikode as independent house Kozhikode District, from Rs! And properties for sale at Calicut with a quarry of 10-acre 'll find there are many operation... ) 846-2118 or email garrett @ zeisloftconstruction.com there is approximately 155,000 cubic yards of it located... @ zeisloftconstruction.com there is approximately 155,000 cubic quarry for sale in kozhikode of it is located in Pantheerankavu is... Has a huge list that matches your requirements in Middle East and Asia operated by balke partner. Date: 06 Oct 2017 Type: commercial / Industrial land @ zeisloftconstruction.com is... Sale near Calicut university, Calicut, Full.. Read More for a rock quarry for sale properties style meticulous. Fully Approved quarry text ( 570 ) 846-2118 or email garrett @ zeisloftconstruction.com there is 155,000... - Rs 9000000 Thiruvannur, Calicut, Kerala of sand and gravel material available, Ernakulam for modern-day lifestyle now., pits and mines in Middle East and Asia operated by stone experts trade portal in Europe quarries.

Who Is Signed To Republic Records, How To Get An Entry Level Epidemiology Job, Simple Maze For Kids, Talica 12 Vs 16, Simple Maze For Kids, Canals Of The World, Disadvantages Of Smart Glasses, Study This Incomplete Image Of A Geometric, Dungeon Dice Monsters Rom, Banjo Song Tik Tok Slow Motion, Hulu Naruto Shippuden Dub,

Источник: http://rotopol.pl/armin-van-aec/quarry-for-sale-in-kozhikode-0f8810

Calicut town

Price: 36 Lakhs/Cent, Area: 30 Cents

Submitted by mrecalicut on Fri, 01/24/2014 - 15:10

image: 

Contact Phone No: 

30 cents commercial land for sale at Calicut city

Price: 14 Lakhs/Cent, Area: 24 Cents

Submitted by mrecalicut on Wed, 06/26/2013 - 20:42

image: 

Contact Phone No: 

24 cents commercial land for sale at Eranhjipalam .This plot is nearby passport office,in between Baby memorial hospital and Eranhjipalam junction.Asking price is 14 lakhs(Negotiable)

Price: 12 Lakhs/Cent, Area: 8 Cents

Submitted by mrecalicut on Fri, 02/08/2013 - 05:58

image: 

Contact Phone No: 

8 Cents residential land for sale at Calicut town near Kalyan kendra. This land is suitable either rsidentail or commercial purpose.
Price ta gis 12 Lakhs/cent (Negotiable).

Price:11 Lakhs/Cent, Area: 14 Cents

Submitted by mrecalicut on Tue, 06/05/2012 - 07:51

image: 

Contact Phone No: 

14 Cents land for sale at English church. This land is suitable for making commercial buildings or appartments.

Price tag is 11 Lakhs/Cent. (Neotiable).

Price:25 Lakhs/Cent,Area:40 Cents

Submitted by mrecalicut on Wed, 05/23/2012 - 14:43

image: 

Contact Phone No: 

40 cent commercial land for sale near Mavoor road. This land is suitable for making commercial buildings.

Price tag is 25 Lakhs/Cent.(Negotiable).

Price:25Lakhs/cent, Area:83 Cents

Submitted by mrecalicut on Thu, 04/19/2012 - 13:04

image: 

Contact Phone No: 

83 cent commercial land in the heart of city for immediate sale ,suitable for star hotels,shopping mall etc.wide road frontage , facing IG road,Mavoor road junction. Asking price 25Lakhs per cent(Negotiable)

Price: 12 Lakhs/cent, Area: 17 Cents

Submitted by mrecalicut on Wed, 03/21/2012 - 07:57

image: 

Contact Phone No: 

Excellent 17 cents commercial land for sale at Calicut near Puthiyara water tank. This Land is suitable for commercial purpose. This land has wide access (container lorry).

Price tag is 12 Lakhs per cent (Negotiable).

Price: 30 Lakhs/cent, Area: 13.5 Cents.

Submitted by mrecalicut on Fri, 12/23/2011 - 20:13

image: 

Contact Phone No: 

13.5 Cents commercial land for sale at Mavoor road. This land is near to Puthiya Bus stand Mavoor road and is suitable for commercial purpose or investment purpose.

Price tag is 30 Lakhs per cent.(Negotiable).

20 Lakhs/Cent,Area 5.5 cents

Submitted by mrecalicut on Wed, 10/19/2011 - 12:02

image: 

Contact Phone No: 

5.5 cents commercial plot for sale at East Nadakkavu. The land is on Waynadu road frontage, and is suitable for making commercial building. The land is owned by 1st owner and have urgency to sell this property.

Price tag is 20 Lakhs/cent(Negotiable).

Syndicate content
Источник: http://realestatemalabar.com/taxonomy/term/82

Fly to Dubai and earn A MILE-A-MINUTE with Emirates Skywards

There are errors on this page

You can book up to nine passengers per booking, including adults, children and infants.

Each adult passenger can bring one infant.

Children travelling alone, or in a different cabin class to their parents, are considered Unaccompanied Minors and pay the full adult fare. Please get in touch with us to book this service.

You can book up to nine passengers per booking, including adults, children and infants.

Each adult passenger can bring one infant.

Children travelling alone, or in a different cabin class to their parents, are considered Unaccompanied Minors and pay the full adult fare. Please get in touch with us to book this service.

You can book up to nine passengers per booking, including adults, teenagers, children and infants.

Each adult passenger can bring one infant.

Children travelling alone, or in a different cabin class to their parents, are considered Unaccompanied Minors and pay the full adult fare. Please get in touch with us to book this service.

You can book up to nine passengers per booking, including adults, children and infants.

Each adult & OFW passenger can bring one infant.

All OFWs must submit the required documents to avail the tax exemption.

Children travelling alone, or in a different cabin class to their parents, are considered Unaccompanied Minors and pay the full adult fare. Please get in touch with us to book this service.

You can book up to nine passengers per booking, including adults, Overseas Filippino Workers (OFW), teenagers, children and infants.

Each adult & OFW passenger can bring one infant.

All OFWs must submit the required documents to avail the tax exemption.

Children travelling alone, or in a different cabin class to their parents, are considered Unaccompanied Minors and pay the full adult fare. Please get in touch with us to book this service.

Источник: https://www.emirates.com/in/english/

Dutch East India Company

1602–1799 Dutch trading company

For other uses, see East India Company (disambiguation).

VOC.svg

Native name

  • Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie
  • Generale Vereenichde Geoctrooieerde Compagnie (original name)
  • Verenigde Nederlandsche Geoctroyeerde Oostindische Compagnie (formal name)
TypePublic
State-owned enterprise
IndustryProto-conglomerate[b]
Predecessor
Founded20 March 1602 (1602-03-20),[8] by a government-directed consolidation of the voorcompagnieën/pre-companies
FounderJohan van Oldenbarnevelt and the States-General
Defunct31 December 1799 (1799-12-31)
FateDissolved and nationalised as Dutch East Indies
Headquarters,

Netherlands

Area served

Key people

ProductsSpices,[2] silk, porcelain, metals, livestock, tea, grain, rice, soybeans, sugarcane,[3][4]wine,[5][6][7]coffee
The "United East India Company", or "United East Indies Company" (also known by the abbreviation "VOC" in Dutch) was the brainchild of Johan van Oldenbarnevelt, the leading statesman of the Dutch Republic.

The Dutch East India Company, officially the United East India Company (Dutch: Vereenigde Oost Indische Compagnie[f]; VOC), was a megacorporation founded by a government-directed consolidation of several rival Dutch trading companies (voorcompagnieën) in the early 17th century. It is believed to be the largest company to ever have existed in recorded history.[9][10] It was established on March 20, 1602, as a chartered company to trade with Mughal India[11][disputed – discuss] in the early modern period, from which 50% of textiles and 80% of silks were imported, chiefly from its most developed region known as Bengal Subah.[12][13][14][15][16] In addition, the company traded with Indianised Southeast Asian countries when the Dutch government granted it a 21-year monopoly on the Dutch spice trade.

The company has been often labelled a trading company (i.e. a company of merchants who buy and sell goods produced by other people) or sometimes a shipping company. However, the VOC was in fact an early-modern corporate model of vertically integratedglobal supply chain[2][5] and a proto-conglomerate, diversifying into multiple commercial and industrial activities such as international trade (especially intra-Asian trade),[1][17][18][19][20][21] shipbuilding, and both production and trade of East Indian spices,[2]Indonesian coffee, Formosan sugarcane,[3][4] and South African wine.[5][6][7] The company was a transcontinental employer and a corporate pioneer of outwardforeign direct investment in the early modern world. At the dawn of modern capitalism, wherever Dutch capital went, urban features were developed, economic activities expanded, new industries established, new jobs created, trading companies operated, swamps drained, mines opened, forests exploited, canals constructed, mills turned, and ships were built.[22][23][24][25][26] In the early modern period, the Dutch were pioneering investors and capitalists who raised the commercial and industrial potential of underdeveloped or undeveloped lands whose resources they exploited, whether for better or worse. For example, the native economies of pre-VOC-era Taiwan and South Africa were largely rural. It was VOC employees who established and developed the first modern urban areas in the history of Taiwan (Tainan) and South Africa (Cape Town and Stellenbosch).

In the early 1600s, by widely issuing bonds and shares to the general public,[g] VOC became the world's first formally listed public company.[h][i][32][33][34][35][36][37][38] With its pioneering institutional innovations and powerful roles in global business history, the company is often considered by many to be the forerunner of modern corporations. In many respects, modern-day corporations are all the 'direct descendants' of the VOC model.[28][39][40][41][42] Its 17th-century institutional innovations and business practices laid the foundations for the rise of giant global corporations in subsequent centuries[27][28][29][43] – as a highly significant and formidable socio-politico-economic force of the modern-day world[44][45][46][47][48] – to become the dominant factor in almost all economic systems today. It also served as the direct model for the organisational reconstruction of the English/British East India Company in 1657.[49][50][51][52][38][53] The company, for nearly 200 years of its existence (1602–1800), had effectively transformed itself from a corporate entity into a state or an empire in its own right.[j]One of the most influential and extensively researched business enterprises in history, the VOC's world has been the subject of a vast amount of literature that includes both fiction and nonfiction works.

The company was historically an exemplary company-state[k] rather than a pure for-profit corporation. Originally a government-backed military-commercial enterprise, the VOC was the wartime brainchild of leading Dutch republican statesman Johan van Oldenbarnevelt and the States-General. From its inception in 1602, the company was not only a commercial enterprise but also effectively an instrument of war in the young Dutch Republic's revolutionary global war against the powerful Spanish Empire and Iberian Union (1579–1648). In 1619, the company forcibly established a central position in the Javanese city of Jayakarta, changing the name to Batavia (modern-day Jakarta). Over the next two centuries the company acquired additional ports as trading bases and safeguarded their interests by taking over surrounding territory.[57] To guarantee its supply, the company established positions in many countries and became an early pioneer of outwardforeign direct investment.[l] In its foreign colonies, the VOC possessed quasi-governmental powers, including the ability to wage war, imprison and execute convicts,[61] negotiate treaties, strike its own coins, and establish colonies.[62] With increasing importance of foreign posts, the company is often considered the world's first true transnational corporation.[m][63] Along with the Dutch West India Company (WIC/GWIC), the VOC was seen as the international arm of the Dutch Republic and the symbolic power of the Dutch Empire. To further its trade routes, the VOC-funded exploratory voyages, such as those led by Willem Janszoon (Duyfken), Henry Hudson (Halve Maen), and Abel Tasman, revealed largely unknown landmasses to the western world. In the Golden Age of Netherlandish cartography (c. 1570s–1670s), VOC navigators and cartographers helped shape geographical knowledge of the world as we know it today.

Socio-economic changes in Europe, the shift in power balance, and less successful financial management resulted in a slow decline of the VOC between 1720 and 1799. After the financially disastrous Fourth Anglo-Dutch War (1780–1784), the company was nationalised in 1796,[64] and finally dissolved on 31 December 1799. All assets were taken over by the government with VOC territories becoming Dutch government colonies.

Contents

  • 1Company name, logo, and flag
  • 2History
  • 3Organisational structure
  • 4Shareholder activism and governance issues
  • 5Main trading posts, settlements, and colonies
  • 6Conflicts and wars involving the VOC
  • 7Historical roles and legacy
    • 7.1Pioneering institutional innovations and impacts on modern-day global business practices and financial system
    • 7.2Impacts on social, economic, financial, political, and military history of the Netherlands
    • 7.3Roles in the history of the global economy and international relations
    • 7.4Artistic, scientific, technological, and cultural legacies of the VOC World
    • 7.5Contributions in the Age of Exploration
  • 8Criticism
  • 9Cultural depictions
  • 10VOC World etymologies
  • 11Populated places established by VOC people
  • 12Important heritage sites in the VOC World
  • 13Buildings and structures
  • 14Archives and records
  • 15Field of VOC World studies
  • 16VOC timeline and historical firsts in the VOC World
  • 17Gallery
  • 18See also
  • 19Notes
  • 20References
  • 21Bibliography
  • 22External links

Company name, logo, and flag[edit]

See also: Colonial Indian companies, Colonial India, Greater India, Dutch East Indies, Spanish East Indies, Category:Colonial Indian companies, and East Indiaman

17th century plaque to Dutch East India Company (VOC), Hoorn
The logo of the Amsterdam Chamber of the VOC

In Dutch, the name of the company is Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie or Verenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie, literally the "United East Indian Company", which is abbreviated to VOC. The company's monogram logo consisted of a large capital 'V' with an O on the left and a C on the right half and was possibly the first globally recognised corporate logo.[39] It appeared on various corporate items, such as cannons and coins. The first letter of the hometown of the chamber conducting the operation was placed on top . The monogram, versatility, flexibility, clarity, simplicity, symmetry, timelessness, and symbolism are considered notable characteristics of the VOC's professionally designed logo. Those elements ensured its success at a time when the concept of the corporate identity was virtually unknown.[39][65][66] An Australian vintner has used the VOC logo since the late 20th century, having re-registered the company's name for the purpose.[67] The flag of the company was red, white, and blue, with the company logo embroidered on it.[citation needed]

Around the world, and especially in English-speaking countries, the VOC is widely known as the 'Dutch East India Company'. The name 'Dutch East India Company' is used to make a distinction from the [British] East India Company (EIC) and other East Indian companies (such as the Danish East India Company, French East India Company, Portuguese East India Company, and the Swedish East India Company). The company's alternative names that have been used include the 'Dutch East Indies Company', 'United East India Company', 'United East Indian Company', 'United East Indies Company', 'Jan Company', or 'Jan Compagnie'.[68][69]

History[edit]

See also: History of the Dutch East India Company (VOC), Evolution of the Dutch Empire, Dutch East India Company in Indonesia, Economic history of the Dutch Republic, and Financial history of the Dutch Republic

Origins[edit]

See also: First Dutch Expedition to Indonesia, Second Dutch Expedition to Indonesia, and Voorcompagnie

Further information: Spice trade and Cape Route

Before the Dutch Revolt, Antwerp had played an important role as a distribution centre in northern Europe. After 1591, however, the Portuguese used an international syndicate of the German Fuggers and Welsers, and Spanish and Italian firms, that used Hamburg as the northern staple port to distribute their goods, thereby cutting Dutch merchants out of the trade. At the same time, the Portuguese trade system was unable to increase supply to satisfy growing demand, in particular the demand for pepper. Demand for spices was relatively inelastic; therefore, each lag in the supply of pepper caused a sharp rise in pepper prices.

In 1580, the Portuguese crown was united in a personal union with the Spanish crown, with which the Dutch Republic was at war. The Portuguese Empire therefore became an appropriate target for Dutch military incursions. These factors motivated Dutch merchants to enter the intercontinental spice trade themselves. Further, a number of Dutchmen like Jan Huyghen van Linschoten and Cornelis de Houtman obtained first hand knowledge of the "secret" Portuguese trade routes and practices, thereby providing opportunity.[70]

The stage was thus set for the four-ship exploratory expedition by Frederick de Houtman in 1595 to Banten, the main pepper port of West Java, where they clashed with both the Portuguese and indigenous Javanese. Houtman's expedition then sailed east along the north coast of Java, losing twelve crew members to a Javanese attack at Sidayu and killing a local ruler in Madura. Half the crew were lost before the expedition made it back to the Netherlands the following year, but with enough spices to make a considerable profit.[71]

In 1598, an increasing number of fleets were sent out by competing merchant groups from around the Netherlands. Some fleets were lost, but most were successful, with some voyages producing high profits. In March 1599, a fleet of eight ships under Jacob van Neck was the first Dutch fleet to reach the 'Spice Islands' of Maluku, the source of pepper, cutting out the Javanese middlemen. The ships returned to Europe in 1599 and 1600 and the expedition made a 400 percent profit.[71]

In 1600, the Dutch joined forces with the Muslim Hituese on Ambon Island in an anti-Portuguese alliance, in return for which the Dutch were given the sole right to purchase spices from Hitu.[72] Dutch control of Ambon was achieved when the Portuguese surrendered their fort in Ambon to the Dutch-Hituese alliance. In 1613, the Dutch expelled the Portuguese from their Solor fort, but a subsequent Portuguese attack led to a second change of hands; following this second reoccupation, the Dutch once again captured Solor in 1636.[72]

East of Solor, on the island of Timor, Dutch advances were halted by an autonomous and powerful group of Portuguese Eurasians called the Topasses. They remained in control of the Sandalwood trade and their resistance lasted throughout the 17th and 18th centuries, causing Portuguese Timor to remain under the Portuguese sphere of control.[73][74]

Formative years[edit]

Reproduction of a map of the city of Batavia c. 1627, collection Tropenmuseum

At the time, it was customary for a company to be funded only for the duration of a single voyage and to be liquidated upon the return of the fleet. Investment in these expeditions was a very high-risk venture, not only because of the usual dangers of piracy, disease and shipwreck, but also because the interplay of inelastic demand and relatively elastic supply[75] of spices could make prices tumble, thereby ruining prospects of profitability. To manage such risk, the forming of a cartel to control supply would seem logical. In 1600, the English were the first to adopt this approach by bundling their resources into a monopoly enterprise, the English East India Company, thereby threatening their Dutch competitors with ruin.[76]

In 1602, the Dutch government followed suit, sponsoring the creation of a single "United East Indies Company" that was also granted monopoly over the Asian trade. For a time in the seventeenth century, it was able to monopolise the trade in nutmeg, mace, and cloves and to sell these spices across European kingdoms and emperor Akbar the Great's Mughal Empire at 14-17 times the price it paid in Indonesia;[77] while Dutch profits soared, the local economy of the Spice Islands was destroyed.[why?] With a capital of 6,440,200 guilders,[78] the new company's charter empowered it to build forts, maintain armies, and conclude treaties with Asian rulers. It provided for a venture that would continue for 21 years, with a financial accounting only at the end of each decade.[76]

In February 1603, the company seized the Santa Catarina, a 1500-ton Portuguese merchant carrack, off the coast of Singapore.[79] She was such a rich prize that her sale proceeds increased the capital of the VOC by more than 50%.[80]

Also in 1603, the first permanent Dutch trading post in Indonesia was established in Banten, West Java, and in 1611, another was established at Jayakarta (later "Batavia" and then "Jakarta").[81] In 1610, the VOC established the post of Governor General to more firmly control their affairs in Asia. To advise and control the risk of despotic Governors General, a Council of the Indies (Raad van Indië) was created. The Governor General effectively became the main administrator of the VOC's activities in Asia, although the Heeren XVII, a body of 17 shareholders representing different chambers, continued to officially have overall control.[72]

The Isle of Amboina, a 17th-century print, probably English

VOC headquarters were located in Ambon during the tenures of the first three Governors General (1610–1619), but it was not a satisfactory location. Although it was at the centre of the spice production areas, it was far from the Asian trade routes and other VOC areas of activity ranging from Africa to India to Japan.[82][83] A location in the west of the archipelago was thus sought. The Straits of Malacca were strategic but became dangerous following the Portuguese conquest, and the first permanent VOC settlement in Banten was controlled by a powerful local ruler and subject to stiff competition from Chinese and English traders.[72]

In 1604, a second English East India Company voyage commanded by Sir Henry Middleton reached the islands of Ternate, Tidore, Ambon and Banda. In Banda, they encountered severe VOC hostility, sparking Anglo-Dutch competition for access to spices.[81] From 1611 to 1617, the English established trading posts at Sukadana (southwest Kalimantan), Makassar, Jayakarta and Jepara in Java, and Aceh, Pariaman and Jambi in Sumatra, which threatened Dutch ambitions for a monopoly on East Indies trade.[81]

In 1620, diplomatic agreements in Europe ushered in a period of co-operation between the Dutch and the English over the spice trade.[81] This ended with a notorious but disputed incident known as the 'Amboyna massacre', where ten Englishmen were arrested, tried and beheaded for conspiracy against the Dutch government.[84] Although this caused outrage in Europe and a diplomatic crisis, the English quietly withdrew from most of their Indonesian activities (except trading in Banten) and focused on other Asian interests.

Growth[edit]

In 1619, Jan Pieterszoon Coen was appointed Governor-General of the VOC. He saw the possibility of the VOC becoming an Asian power, both political and economic. On 30 May 1619, Coen, backed by a force of nineteen ships, stormed Jayakarta, driving out the Banten forces; and from the ashes established Batavia as the VOC headquarters. In the 1620s almost the entire native population of the Banda Islands was driven away, starved to death, or killed in an attempt to replace them with Dutch plantations.[85] These plantations were used to grow nutmeg for export. Coen hoped to settle large numbers of Dutch colonists in the East Indies, but implementation of this policy never materialised, mainly because very few Dutch were willing to emigrate to Asia.[86]

Another of Coen's ventures was more successful. A major problem in the European trade with Asia at the time was that the Europeans could offer few goods that Asian consumers wanted, except silver and gold. European traders therefore had to pay for spices with the precious metals, which were in short supply in Europe, except for Spain and Portugal. The Dutch and English had to obtain it by creating a trade surplus with other European countries. Coen discovered the obvious solution for the problem: to start an intra-Asiatic trade system, whose profits could be used to finance the spice trade with Europe. In the long run this obviated the need for exports of precious metals from Europe, though at first it required the formation of a large trading-capital fund in the Indies. The VOC reinvested a large share of its profits to this end in the period up to 1630.[87]

The VOC traded throughout Asia, benefiting mainly from Bengal. Ships coming into Batavia from the Netherlands carried supplies for VOC settlements in Asia. Silver and copper from Japan were used to trade with the world's wealthiest empires, Mughal India and Qing China, for silk, cotton, porcelain, and textiles. These products were either traded within Asia for the coveted spices or brought back to Europe. The VOC was also instrumental in introducing European ideas and technology to Asia. The company supported Christian missionaries and traded modern technology with China and Japan. A more peaceful VOC trade post on Dejima, an artificial island off the coast of Nagasaki, was for more than two hundred years the only place where Europeans were permitted to trade with Japan.[88] When the VOC tried to use military force to make Ming dynasty China open up to Dutch trade, the Chinese defeated the Dutch in a war over the Penghu islands from 1623 to 1624, forcing the VOC to abandon Penghu for Taiwan. The Chinese defeated the VOC again at the Battle of Liaoluo Bay in 1633.

The Vietnamese Nguyen Lords defeated the VOC in a 1643 battle during the Trịnh–Nguyễn War, blowing up a Dutch ship. The Cambodians defeated the VOC in the Cambodian–Dutch War from 1643 to 1644 on the Mekong River.

In 1640, the VOC obtained the port of Galle, Ceylon, from the Portuguese and broke the latter's monopoly of the cinnamon trade. In 1658, Gerard Pietersz. Hulft laid siege to Colombo, which was captured with the help of King Rajasinghe II of Kandy. By 1659, the Portuguese had been expelled from the coastal regions, which were then occupied by the VOC, securing for it the monopoly over cinnamon. To prevent the Portuguese or the English from ever recapturing Sri Lanka, the VOC went on to conquer the entire Malabar Coast from the Portuguese, almost entirely driving them from the west coast of India. When news of a peace agreement between Portugal and the Netherlands reached Asia in 1663, Goa was the only remaining Portuguese city on the west coast.[89]

In 1652, Jan van Riebeeck established a resupply outpost at the Cape of Storms (the southwestern tip of Africa, now Cape Town, South Africa) to service company ships on their journey to and from East Asia. The cape was later renamed Cape of Good Hope in honour of the outpost's presence. Although non-company ships were welcome to use the station, they were charged exorbitantly. This post later became a full-fledged colony, the Cape Colony, when more Dutch and other Europeans started to settle there.

Through the seventeenth century VOC trading posts were also established in Persia, Bengal, Malacca, Siam, Formosa (now Taiwan), as well as the Malabar and Coromandel coasts in India. Direct access to mainland China came in 1729 when a factory was established in Canton.[90] In 1662, however, Koxinga expelled the Dutch from Taiwan[91] (seeHistory of Taiwan).

In 1663, the VOC signed the "Painan Treaty" with several local lords in the Painan area that were revolting against the Aceh Sultanate. The treaty allowed the VOC to build a trading post in the area and eventually to monopolise the trade there, especially the gold trade.[92]

By 1669, the VOC was the richest private company the world had ever seen, with over 150 merchant ships, 40 warships, 50,000 employees, a private army of 10,000 soldiers, and a dividend payment of 40% on the original investment.[93]

Many of the VOC employees inter-mixed with the indigenous peoples and expanded the population of Indos in pre-colonial history.[94][95]

Reorientation[edit]

Around 1670, two events caused the growth of VOC trade to stall. In the first place, the highly profitable trade with Japan started to decline. The loss of the outpost on Formosa to Koxinga in the 1662 Siege of Fort Zeelandia and related internal turmoil in China (where the Ming dynasty was being replaced with the China's Qing dynasty) brought an end to the silk trade after 1666. Though the VOC substituted Mughal Bengal's for Chinese silk, other forces affected the supply of Japanese silver and gold. The shogunate enacted a number of measures to limit the export of these precious metals, in the process limiting VOC opportunities for trade, and severely worsening the terms of trade. Therefore, Japan ceased to function as the lynchpin of the intra-Asiatic trade of the VOC by 1685.[96]

Even more importantly, the Third Anglo-Dutch War temporarily interrupted VOC trade with Europe. This caused a spike in the price of pepper, which enticed the English East India Company (EIC) to enter this market aggressively in the years after 1672. Previously, one of the tenets of the VOC pricing policy was to slightly over-supply the pepper market, so as to depress prices below the level where interlopers were encouraged to enter the market (instead of striving for short-term profit maximisation). The wisdom of such a policy was illustrated when a fierce price war with the EIC ensued, as that company flooded the market with new supplies from India. In this struggle for market share, the VOC (which had much larger financial resources) could wait out the EIC. Indeed, by 1683, the latter came close to bankruptcy; its share price plummeted from 600 to 250; and its president Josiah Child was temporarily forced from office.[97]

However, the writing was on the wall. Other companies, like the French East India Company and the Danish East India Company also started to make inroads on the Dutch system. The VOC therefore closed the theretofore flourishing open pepper emporium of Bantam by a treaty of 1684 with the Sultan. Also, on the Coromandel Coast, it moved its chief stronghold from Pulicat to Negapatnam, so as to secure a monopoly on the pepper trade to the detriment of the French and the Danes.[98] However, the importance of these traditional commodities in the Asian-European trade was diminishing rapidly at the time. The military outlays that the VOC needed to make to enhance its monopoly were not justified by the increased profits of this declining trade.[99]

Nevertheless, this lesson was slow to sink in and at first the VOC made the strategic decision to improve its military position on the Malabar Coast (hoping thereby to curtail English influence in the area, and end the drain on its resources from the cost of the Malabar garrisons) by using force to compel the Zamorin of Calicut to submit to Dutch domination. In 1710, the Zamorin was made to sign a treaty with the VOC undertaking to trade exclusively with the VOC and expel other European traders. For a brief time, this appeared to improve the company's prospects. However, in 1715, with EIC encouragement, the Zamorin renounced the treaty. Though a Dutch army managed to suppress this insurrection temporarily, the Zamorin continued to trade with the English and the French, which led to an appreciable upsurge in English and French traffic. The VOC decided in 1721 that it was no longer worth the trouble to try to dominate the Malabar pepper and spice trade. A strategic decision was taken to scale down the Dutch military presence and in effect yield the area to EIC influence.[100]

The 1741 Battle of Colachel by warriors of Travancore under Raja Marthanda Varma defeated the Dutch. The Dutch commander Captain Eustachius De Lannoy was captured. Marthanda Varma agreed to spare the Dutch captain's life on condition that he joined his army and trained his soldiers on modern lines. This defeat in the Travancore-Dutch War is considered the earliest example of an organised Asian power overcoming European military technology and tactics; and it signalled the decline of Dutch power in India.[101]

The attempt to continue as before as a low volume-high profit business enterprise with its core business in the spice trade had therefore failed. The company had however already (reluctantly) followed the example of its European competitors in diversifying into other Asian commodities, like tea, coffee, cotton, textiles, and sugar. These commodities provided a lower profit margin and therefore required a larger sales volume to generate the same amount of revenue. This structural change in the commodity composition of the VOC's trade started in the early 1680s, after the temporary collapse of the EIC around 1683 offered an excellent opportunity to enter these markets. The actual cause for the change lies, however, in two structural features of this new era.

In the first place, there was a revolutionary change in the tastes affecting European demand for Asian textiles, coffee and tea, around the turn of the 18th century. Secondly, a new era of an abundant supply of capital at low interest rates suddenly opened around this time. The second factor enabled the company easily to finance its expansion in the new areas of commerce.[102] Between the 1680s and 1720s, the VOC was therefore able to equip and man an appreciable expansion of its fleet, and acquire a large amount of precious metals to finance the purchase of large amounts of Asian commodities, for shipment to Europe. The overall effect was approximately to double the size of the company.[103]

The tonnage of the returning ships rose by 125 percent in this period. However, the company's revenues from the sale of goods landed in Europe rose by only 78 percent. This reflects the basic change in the VOC's circumstances that had occurred: it now operated in new markets for goods with an elastic demand, in which it had to compete on an equal footing with other suppliers. This made for low profit margins.[104] Unfortunately, the business information systems of the time made this difficult to discern for the managers of the company, which may partly explain the mistakes they made from hindsight. This lack of information might have been counteracted (as in earlier times in the VOC's history) by the business acumen of the directors. Unfortunately by this time these were almost exclusively recruited from the political regent class, which had long since lost its close relationship with merchant circles.[105]

Low profit margins in themselves do not explain the deterioration of revenues. To a large extent the costs of the operation of the VOC had a "fixed" character (military establishments; maintenance of the fleet and such). Profit levels might therefore have been maintained if the increase in the scale of trading operations that in fact took place had resulted in economies of scale. However, though larger ships transported the growing volume of goods, labour productivity did not go up sufficiently to realise these. In general the company's overhead rose in step with the growth in trade volume; declining gross margins translated directly into a decline in profitability of the invested capital. The era of expansion was one of "profitless growth".[106]

Specifically: "[t]he long-term average annual profit in the VOC's 1630–70 'Golden Age' was 2.1 million guilders, of which just under half was distributed as dividends and the remainder reinvested. The long-term average annual profit in the 'Expansion Age' (1680–1730) was 2.0 million guilders, of which three-quarters was distributed as dividend and one-quarter reinvested. In the earlier period, profits averaged 18 percent of total revenues; in the latter period, 10 percent. The annual return of invested capital in the earlier period stood at approximately 6 percent; in the latter period, 3.4 percent."[106]

Nevertheless, in the eyes of investors the VOC did not do too badly. The share price hovered consistently around the 400 mark from the mid-1680s (excepting a hiccup around the Glorious Revolution in 1688), and they reached an all-time high of around 642 in the 1720s. VOC shares then yielded a return of 3.5 percent, only slightly less than the yield on Dutch government bonds.[107]

Decline and fall[edit]

After 1730, the fortunes of the VOC started to decline. Five major problems, not all of equal weight, explain its decline over the next fifty years to 1780:[108]

  • There was a steady erosion of intra-Asiatic trade because of changes in the Asiatic political and economic environment that the VOC could do little about. These factors gradually squeezed the company out of Persia, Suratte, the Malabar Coast, and Bengal. The company had to confine its operations to the belt it physically controlled, from Ceylon through the Indonesian archipelago. The volume of this intra-Asiatic trade, and its profitability, therefore had to shrink.
  • The way the company was organised in Asia (centralised on its hub in Batavia), that initially had offered advantages in gathering market information, began to cause disadvantages in the 18th century because of the inefficiency of first shipping everything to this central point. This disadvantage was most keenly felt in the tea trade, where competitors like the EIC and the Ostend Company shipped directly from China to Europe.
  • The "venality" of the VOC's personnel (in the sense of corruption and non-performance of duties), though a problem for all East India Companies at the time, seems to have plagued the VOC on a larger scale than its competitors. To be sure, the company was not a "good employer". Salaries were low, and "private-account trading" was officially not allowed. Not surprisingly, it proliferated in the 18th century to the detriment of the company's performance.[109] From about the 1790s onward, the phrase perished under corruption (vergaan onder corruptie, also abbreviated VOC in Dutch) came to summarise the company's future.
  • A problem that the VOC shared with other companies was the high mortality and morbidity rates among its employees. This decimated the company's ranks and enervated many of the survivors.
  • A self-inflicted wound was the VOC's dividend policy. The dividends distributed by the company had exceeded the surplus it garnered in Europe in every decade from 1690 to 1760 except 1710–1720. However, in the period up to 1730 the directors shipped resources to Asia to build up the trading capital there. Consolidated bookkeeping therefore probably would have shown that total profits exceeded dividends. In addition, between 1700 and 1740 the company retired 5.4 million guilders of long-term debt. The company therefore was still on a secure financial footing in these years. This changed after 1730. While profits plummeted the bewindhebbers only slightly decreased dividends from the earlier level. Distributed dividends were therefore in excess of earnings in every decade but one (1760–1770). To accomplish this, the Asian capital stock had to be drawn down by 4 million guilders between 1730 and 1780, and the liquid capital available in Europe was reduced by 20 million guilders in the same period. The directors were therefore constrained to replenish the company's liquidity by resorting to short-term financing from anticipatory loans, backed by expected revenues from home-bound fleets.[citation needed]

Despite these problems, the VOC in 1780 remained an enormous operation. Its capital in the Republic, consisting of ships and goods in inventory, totalled 28 million guilders; its capital in Asia, consisting of the liquid trading fund and goods en route to Europe, totalled 46 million guilders. Total capital, net of outstanding debt, stood at 62 million guilders. The prospects of the company at this time therefore were not hopeless, had one of the plans for reform been undertaken successfully. However, the Fourth Anglo-Dutch War intervened. British naval attacks in Europe and Asia reduced the VOC fleet by half; removed valuable cargo from its control; and eroded its remaining power in Asia. The direct losses of the VOC during the war can be calculated at 43 million guilders. Loans to keep the company operating reduced its net assets to zero.[110]

From 1720 on, the market for sugar from Indonesia declined as the competition from cheap sugar from Brazil increased. European markets became saturated. Dozens of Chinese sugar traders went bankrupt, which led to massive unemployment, which in turn led to gangs of unemployed coolies. The Dutch government in Batavia did not adequately respond to these problems. In 1740, rumours of deportation of the gangs from the Batavia area led to widespread rioting. The Dutch military searched houses of Chinese in Batavia for weapons. When a house accidentally burnt down, military and impoverished citizens started slaughtering and pillaging the Chinese community.[111] This massacre of the Chinese was deemed sufficiently serious for the board of the VOC to start an official investigation into the Government of the Dutch East Indies for the first time in its history.

After the Fourth Anglo-Dutch War, the VOC was a financial wreck. After vain attempts at reorganisation by the provincial States of Holland and Zeeland, it was nationalised by the new Batavian Republic on 1 March 1796.[112] The VOC charter was renewed several times, but was allowed to expire on 31 December 1799.[112] Most of the possessions of the former VOC were subsequently occupied by Great Britain during the Napoleonic wars, but after the new United Kingdom of the Netherlands was created by the Congress of Vienna, some of these were restored to this successor state of the Dutch Republic by the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814.

Organisational structure[edit]

A bondfrom the Dutch East India Company (VOC), dating from 7 November 1623. The VOC was the first company in history to issue bondsand sharesof stockto the general public. It was the VOC that invented the idea of investing in the company rather than in a specific venture governed by the company. The VOC was also the first company to use a fully-fledged capital market(including the bond marketand the stock market) as a crucial channel to raise medium-term and long-term funds.

The VOC is generally considered to be the world's first truly transnational corporation and it was also the first multinational enterprise to issue shares of stock to the public. Some historians such as Timothy Brook and Russell Shorto consider the VOC as the pioneering corporation in the first wave of the corporate globalisation era.[39][40] The VOC was the first multinational corporation to operate officially in different continents such as Europe, Asia and Africa. While the VOC mainly operated in what later became the Dutch East Indies (modern Indonesia), the company also had important operations elsewhere. It employed people from different continents and origins in the same functions and working environments. Although it was a Dutch company its employees included not only people from the Netherlands, but also many from Germany and from other countries as well. Besides the diverse north-west European workforce recruited by the VOC in the Dutch Republic, the VOC made extensive use of local Asian labour markets. As a result, the personnel of the various VOC offices in Asia consisted of European and Asian employees. Asian or Eurasian workers might be employed as sailors, soldiers, writers, carpenters, smiths, or as simple unskilled workers.[113] At the height of its existence the VOC had 25,000 employees who worked in Asia and 11,000 who were en route.[114] Also, while most of its shareholders were Dutch, about a quarter of the initial shareholders were Zuid-Nederlanders (people from an area that includes modern Belgium and Luxembourg) and there were also a few dozen Germans.[115]

The VOC had two types of shareholders: the participanten, who could be seen as non-managing members, and the 76 bewindhebbers (later reduced to 60) who acted as managing directors. This was the usual set-up for Dutch joint-stock companies at the time. The innovation in the case of the VOC was that the liability of not just the participanten but also of the bewindhebbers was limited to the paid-in capital (usually, bewindhebbers had unlimited liability). The VOC therefore was a limited liability company. Also, the capital would be permanent during the lifetime of the company. As a consequence, investors that wished to liquidate their interest in the interim could only do this by selling their share to others on the Amsterdam Stock Exchange.[116]Confusion of confusions, a 1688 dialogue by the Sephardi Jew Joseph de la Vega analysed the workings of this one-stock exchange.

The VOC consisted of six Chambers (Kamers) in port cities: Amsterdam, Delft, Rotterdam, Enkhuizen, Middelburg and Hoorn. Delegates of these chambers convened as the Heeren XVII (the Lords Seventeen). They were selected from the bewindhebber-class of shareholders.[117]

Of the Heeren XVII, eight delegates were from the Chamber of Amsterdam (one short of a majority on its own), four from the Chamber of Zeeland, and one from each of the smaller Chambers, while the seventeenth seat was alternatively from the Chamber of Middelburg-Zeeland or rotated among the five small Chambers. Amsterdam had thereby the decisive voice. The Zeelanders in particular had misgivings about this arrangement at the beginning. The fear was not unfounded, because in practice it meant Amsterdam stipulated what happened.

The six chambers raised the start-up capital of the Dutch East India Company:

ChamberCapital (Guilders)
Amsterdam3,679,915
Middelburg1,300,405
Enkhuizen540,000
Delft469,400
Hoorn266,868
Rotterdam173,000
Total:6,424,588

The raising of capital in Rotterdam did not go so smoothly. A considerable part originated from inhabitants of Dordrecht. Although it did not raise as much capital as Amsterdam or Middelburg-Zeeland, Enkhuizen had the largest input in the share capital of the VOC. Under the first 358 shareholders, there were many small entrepreneurs, who dared to take the risk. The minimum investment in the VOC was 3,000 guilders, which priced the company's stock within the means of many merchants.[118]

Various VOC soldier uniforms, c. 1783

Among the early shareholders of the VOC, immigrants played an important role. Under the 1,143 tenderers were 39 Germans and no fewer than 301 from the Southern Netherlands (roughly present Belgium and Luxembourg, then under Habsburg rule), of whom Isaac le Maire was the largest subscriber with ƒ85,000. VOC's total capitalisation was ten times that of its British rival.

The Heeren XVII (Lords Seventeen) met alternately six years in Amsterdam and two years in Middelburg-Zeeland. They defined the VOC's general policy and divided the tasks among the Chambers. The Chambers carried out all the necessary work, built their own ships and warehouses and traded the merchandise. The Heeren XVII sent the ships' masters off with extensive instructions on the route to be navigated, prevailing winds, currents, shoals and landmarks. The VOC also produced its own charts.

In the context of the Dutch-Portuguese War the company established its headquarters in Batavia, Java (now Jakarta, Indonesia). Other colonial outposts were also established in the East Indies, such as on the Maluku Islands, which include the Banda Islands, where the VOC forcibly maintained a monopoly over nutmeg and mace. Methods used to maintain the monopoly involved extortion and the violent suppression of the native population, including mass murder.[119] In addition, VOC representatives sometimes used the tactic of burning spice trees to force indigenous populations to grow other crops, thus artificially cutting the supply of spices like nutmeg and cloves.[120]

Shareholder activism and governance issues[edit]

The seventeenth-century Dutch businessmen, especially the VOC investors, were possibly history's first recorded investors to seriously consider the corporate governance's problems.[121][122]Isaac Le Maire, who is known as history's first recorded short seller, was also a sizeable shareholder of the VOC. In 1609, he complained of the VOC's shoddy corporate governance. On 24 January 1609, Le Maire filed a petition against the VOC, marking the first recorded expression of shareholder activism. In what is the first recorded corporate governance dispute, Le Maire formally charged that the VOC's board of directors (the Heeren XVII) sought to "retain another's money for longer or use it ways other than the latter wishes" and petitioned for the liquidation of the VOC in accordance with standard business practice.[123][124][125] Initially the largest single shareholder in the VOC and a bewindhebber sitting on the board of governors, Le Maire apparently attempted to divert the firm's profits to himself by undertaking 14 expeditions under his own accounts instead of those of the company. Since his large shareholdings were not accompanied by greater voting power, Le Maire was soon ousted by other governors in 1605 on charges of embezzlement, and was forced to sign an agreement not to compete with the VOC. Having retained stock in the company following this incident, in 1609 Le Maire would become the author of what is celebrated as "first recorded expression of shareholder advocacy at a publicly traded company".[126][127][128]

In 1622, the history's first recorded shareholder revolt also happened among the VOC investors who complained that the company account books had been "smeared with bacon" so that they might be "eaten by dogs." The investors demanded a "reeckeninge," a proper financial audit.[129] The 1622 campaign by the shareholders of the VOC is a testimony of genesis of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in which shareholders staged protests by distributing pamphlets and complaining about management self enrichment and secrecy.[130]

Main trading posts, settlements, and colonies[edit]

Main article: List of Dutch East India Company trading posts and settlements

See also: Former settlements and colonies of the Dutch East India Company (VOC)

See also: Former trading posts of the Dutch East India Company (VOC)

See also: Populated places established by the Dutch East India Company (VOC)

Europe[edit]

Netherlands[edit]

Africa[edit]

Mauritius[edit]

South Africa[edit]

Asia[edit]

Scale model of Dutch trading post on display in Dejima, Nagasaki(1995)
Ground-plan of the Dutch trade-post on the island Dejimaat Nagasaki. An imagined bird's-eye view of Dejima's layout and structures (copied from a woodblock print by Toshimaya Bunjiemon of 1780).

Indonesia[edit]

Main article: Dutch East India Company in Indonesia

See also: Dutch East Indies

Indian subcontinent[edit]

Main article: Dutch India

Japan[edit]

See also: VOC Opperhoofden in Japan

Taiwan[edit]

Main article: Dutch Taiwan

Malaysia[edit]

Thailand[edit]

Vietnam[edit]

Conflicts and wars involving the VOC[edit]

[icon]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (July 2018)

See also: Military history of the Dutch East India Company, Battles involving the Dutch East India Company, and Spice wars

The history of VOC commercial conflict, for example with the British East India Company (EIC), was at times closely connected to Dutch military conflicts. The commercial interests of the VOC (and more generally the Netherlands) were reflected in military objectives and the settlements agreed by treaty. In the Treaty of Breda (1667) ending the Second Anglo-Dutch War, the Dutch were finally able to secure a VOC monopoly for nutmeg trade, ceding the island of Manhattan to the British while gaining the last non-VOC controlled source of nutmeg, the island of Rhun in the Banda islands.[131] The Dutch later re-captured Manhattan, but returned it along with the colony of New Netherland in the Treaty of Westminster (1674) ending the Third Anglo-Dutch War. The British also gave up claims on Suriname as part of the Treaty of Westminster. There was also an effort to compensate the war-related losses of the Dutch West India Company in the mid-17th century by the profits of the VOC, though this was ultimately blocked.

Historical roles and legacy[edit]

The Netherlands United East Indies Company (Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie, or VOC), founded in 1602, was the world's first multinational, joint-stock, limited liability corporation – as well as its first government-backed trading cartel. Our own East India Company, founded in 1600, remained a coffee-houseclique until 1657, when it, too, began selling shares, not in individual voyages, but in John Company itself, by which time its Dutch rival was by far the biggest commercial enterprise the world had known.

— Murray Sayle, London Review of Books, April 2001[49]

(...) As populations grew, more robust legal and financial infrastructures began to develop across Europe. Those infrastructures, combined with advances in shipping technology, made large-scale trade feasible for the first time. In 1602, the Dutch East India Company was formed. It was a new type of institution: the first multinational company, and the first to issue public stock. These innovations allowed a single company to mobilize financial resources from a large number of investors and create ventures at a scale that had previously only been possible for monarchs.

— John Hagel & John Seely Brown, Deloitte Insights, March 2013[141]

In terms of global business history, the lessons from the VOC's successes or failures are critically important. In his book Amsterdam: A History of the World's Most Liberal City (2013), American author and historian Russell Shorto summarises the VOC's importance in world history: "Like the oceans it mastered, the VOC had a scope that is hard to fathom. One could craft a defensible argument that no company in history has had such an impact on the world. Its surviving archives – in Cape Town, Colombo, Chennai, Jakarta, and The Hague – have been measured (by a consortium applying for a UNESCO grant to preserve them) in kilometers. In innumerable ways the VOC both expanded the world and brought its far-flung regions together. It introduced Europe to Asia and Africa, and vice versa (while its sister multinational, the West India Company, set New York City in motion and colonized Brazil and the Caribbean Islands). It pioneered globalisation and invented what might be the first modern bureaucracy. It advanced cartography and shipbuilding. It fostered disease, slavery, and exploitation on a scale never before imaged."[40]

A pioneering early model of the multinational corporation in its modern sense,[142][143][144][145] the company is also considered to be the world's first true transnational corporation. In the early 1600s, the VOC became the world's first formally listed public company because it was the first corporation to be ever actually listed on a formal stock exchange. The VOC had a massive influence on the evolution of the modern corporation by creating an institutional prototype for subsequent large-scale business enterprises (in particular large corporations like multinational/transnational/global corporations) and their rise to become a highly significant socio-politico-economic force of the modern world as we know it today.[146][44][147][46][148][149] In many respects, modern-day publicly listed global companies (including Forbes Global 2000 companies)[150] are all 'descendants' of a business model pioneered by the VOC in the 17th century. Like modern-day major corporations,[151] in many ways, the post-1657 English/British East India Company's operational structure was a derivative of the earlier VOC model.[49][50][52][38][53]

During its golden age, the company played crucial roles in business, financial,[o] socio-politico-economic, military-political, diplomatic, ethnic, and exploratory maritime history of the world. In the early modern period, the VOC was also the driving force behind the rise of corporate-led globalization,[156][2] corporate power, corporate identity, corporate culture, corporate social responsibility, corporate ethics, corporate governance, corporate finance, corporate capitalism, and finance capitalism. With its pioneering institutional innovations and powerful roles in world history,[157] the company is considered by many to be the first major, first modern,[p][159][160][161] first global, most valuable,[162][163] and most influential corporation ever seen.[q][39][40][41] The VOC was also arguably the first historical model of the megacorporation.

Pioneering institutional innovations and impacts on modern-day global business practices and financial system[edit]

Further information: Economic history of the Dutch Republic, Financial history of the Dutch Republic, Dutch Financial Revolution, Finance capitalism, Corporate finance, Financial system, Global financial system, History of financial markets, Capital market, Financial market, History of capitalism, and Corporate globalization

The defining characteristics of the modern corporation, all of which emerged during the Dutch cycle, include: limited liability for investors, free transferability of investor interests, legal personality and centralised management. Although some of these characteristics were present to a certain extent in the fourteenth-century Genoesesocietas comperarum of the first cycle, the first wholly cognisable modern limited liability public company was the VOC. The organisational structures and corporate practices of the VOC were closely paralleled by the English East India Company and served as the direct model for all of the later mercantile trading companies of the second cycle, including those of Italy, France, Portugal, Denmark, and Brandenburg-Prussia.

— Eric Michael Wilson, in "The Savage Republic" (2008)[168]

In 1602 shares in the Dutch Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie (VOC, better known as the Dutch East India Company) were issued, suddenly creating what is usually considered the world's first publicly traded company. (...) There are other claimants to the title of first public company, including a twelfth-century water mill in France and a thirteenth-century company intended to control the English wool trade, Staple of London. Its shares, however, and the manner in which those shares were traded, did not truly allow public ownership by anyone who happened to be able to afford a share. The arrival of VOC shares was therefore momentous, because as Fernand Braudel pointed out, it opened up the ownership of companies and the ideas they generated, beyond the ranks of the aristocracy and the very rich, so that everyone could finally participate in the speculative freedom of transactions. By expanding ownership of its company pie for a certain price and a tentative return, the Dutch had done something historic: they had created a capital market.

— Kevin Kaiser and David Young (INSEAD), in "The Blue Line Imperative: What Managing for Value Really Means" (2013)[169]

The VOC played a crucial role in the rise of corporate-led globalisation,[170]corporate governance, corporate identity,[171]corporate social responsibility, corporate finance, modern entrepreneurship, and financial capitalism.[172][173][41] During its golden age, the company made some fundamental institutional innovations in economic and financial history. These financially revolutionary innovations allowed a single company (like the VOC) to mobilise financial resources from a large number of investors and create ventures at a scale that had previously only been possible for monarchs. In the words of Canadian historian and sinologist Timothy Brook, "the Dutch East India Company – the VOC, as it is known – is to corporate capitalism what Benjamin Franklin's kite is to electronics: the beginning of something momentous that could not have been predicted at the time."[39] The birth and growth of the VOC (especially in the 17th century) is considered by many to be the official beginning of the corporate globalisation era with the rise of large-scale business enterprises (multinational/transnational corporations in particular) as a highly formidable socio-politico-economic force[174][175][176][39] that significantly affects people's lives in every corner of the world today,[44][45][47][177][46][178][48] whether for better or worse.[30] As the world's first publicly traded company and first listed company (the first company to be ever listed on an official stock exchange), the VOC was the first company to issue stock and bonds to the general public. Considered by many experts to be the world's first truly (modern) multinational corporation,[179] the VOC was also the first permanently organised limited-liabilityjoint-stock company, with a permanent capital base.[s][181] The VOC shareholders were the pioneers in laying the basis for modern corporate governance and corporate finance. The VOC is often considered as the precursor of modern corporations, if not the first truly modern corporation.[182] It was the VOC that invented the idea of investing in the company rather than in a specific venture governed by the company. With its pioneering features such as corporate identity (first globally recognised corporate logo), entrepreneurial spirit, legal personhood, transnational (multinational) operational structure, high and stable profitability, permanent capital (fixed capital stock),[183] freely transferable shares and tradable securities, separation of ownership and management, and limited liability for both shareholders and managers, the VOC is generally considered a major institutional breakthrough[184] and the model for large corporations that now dominate the global economy.[185]

(...) This enigmatic business [i.e. the inner workings of the stock exchange in Amsterdam, primarily the practice of VOC and WIC stock trading] which is at once the fairest and most deceitful in Europe, the noblest and the most infamous in the world, the finest and the most vulgar on earth. It is a quintessence of academic learning and a paragon of fraudulence; it is a touchstone for the intelligent and a tombstone for the audacious, a treasury of usefulness and a source of disaster, (...) The best and most agreeable aspect of the new business is that one can become rich without risk. Indeed, without endangering your capital, and with out having anything to do with correspondence, advances of money, warehouses, postage, cashiers, suspensions of payment, and other unforeseen incidents, you have the prospect of gaining wealth if, in the case of bad luck in your transactions, you will only change your name. Just as the Hebrews, when they are seriously ill, change their names in order to obtain relief, so a changing of his name is sufficient for the speculator who finds himself in difficulties, to free himself from all impending dangers and tormenting disquietude.

— Joseph de la Vega, in his book Confusión de confusiones (1688), the earliest book about stock trading[186]

The stock market – the daytime adventure serial of the well-to-do – would not be the stock market if it did not have its ups and downs. (...) Apart from the economic advantages and disadvantages of stock exchanges – the advantage that they provide a free flow of capital to finance industrial expansion, for instance, and the disadvantage that they provide an all too convenient way for the unlucky, the imprudent, and the gullible to lose their money – their development has created a whole pattern of social behavior, complete with customs, language, and predictable responses to given events. What is truly extraordinary is the speed with which this pattern emerged full blown following the establishment, in 1611, of the world's first important stock exchange – a roofless courtyard in Amsterdam – and the degree to which it persists (with variations, it is true) on the New York Stock Exchange in the nineteen-sixties. Present-day stock trading in the United States – a bewilderingly vast enterprise, involving millions of miles of private telegraph wires, computers that can read and copy the Manhattan Telephone Directory in three minutes, and over twenty million stockholder participants – would seem to be a far cry from a handful of seventeenth-century Dutchmen haggling in the rain. But the field marks are much the same. The first stock exchange was, inadvertently, a laboratory in which new human reactions were revealed. By the same token, the New York Stock Exchange is also a sociological test tube, forever contributing to the human species' self-understanding. The behaviour of the pioneering Dutch stock traders is ably documented in a book entitled "Confusion of Confusions," written by a plunger on the Amsterdam market named Joseph de la Vega; originally published in 1688 (...)

— John Brooks, in "Business Adventures" (1968)[187]

Business ventures with multiple shareholders became popular with commenda contracts in medieval Italy (Greif, 2006, p. 286), and Malmendier (2009) provides evidence that shareholder companies date back to ancient Rome. Yet the title of the world's first stock market deservedly goes to that of seventeenth-century Amsterdam, where an active secondary market in company shares emerged. The two major companies were the Dutch East India Company and the Dutch West India Company, founded in 1602 and 1621. Other companies existed, but they were not as large and constituted a small portion of the stock market.

— Edward P. Stringham and Nicholas A. Curott, in "The Oxford Handbook of Austrian Economics" [On the Origins of Stock Markets] (2015)[188]

The VOC was a driving force behind the rise of Amsterdam as the first modern model of international financial centres[t] that now dominate the global financial system. With their political independence, huge maritime and financial power,[190][191]Republican-period Amsterdam and other Dutch cities – unlike their Southern Netherlandish cousins and predecessors such as Burgundian-ruleBruges[192] and Habsburg-ruleAntwerp[193][194][195] – could control crucial resources and markets directly, sending their combined fleets to almost all quarters of the globe.[196][197] During the 17th century and most of the 18th century, Amsterdam had been the most influential financial centre of the world.[198][199][200][201][202] The VOC also played a major role in the creation of the world's first fully functioning financial market,[203] with the birth of a fully fledged capital market.[204] The Dutch were also the first who effectively used a fully-fledged capital market (including the bond market and the stock market) to finance companies (such as the VOC and the WIC). It was in the 17th-century Dutch Republic that the global securities market began to take on its modern form. And it was in Amsterdam that the important institutional innovations such as publicly traded companies, transnational corporations, capital markets (including bond markets and stock markets), central banking system, investment banking system, and investment funds (mutual funds) were systematically operated for the first time in history. In 1602 the VOC established an exchange in Amsterdam where VOC stock and bonds could be traded in a secondary market. The VOC undertook the world's first recorded IPO in the same year. The Amsterdam Stock Exchange (Amsterdamsche Beurs or Beurs van Hendrick de Keyser in Dutch) was also the world's first fully-fledged stock exchange. While the Italian city-states produced first formal bond markets, they did not develop the other ingredient necessary to produce a fully fledged capital market: the formal stock market.[205] The Dutch East India Company (VOC) became the first company to offer shares of stock. The dividend averaged around 18% of capital over the course of the company's 200-year existence. The launch of the Amsterdam Stock Exchange by the VOC in the early 1600s, has long been recognised as the origin of 'modern' stock exchanges that specialise in creating and sustaining secondary markets in the securities (such as bonds and shares of stock) issued by corporations.[206] Dutch investors were the first to trade their shares at a regular stock exchange. The process of buying and selling these shares of stock in the VOC became the basis of the first official (formal) stock market in history.[164][207] It was in the Dutch Republic that the early techniques of stock-market manipulation were developed. The Dutch pioneered stock futures, stock options, short selling, bear raids

Источник: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dutch_East_India_Company

SALES PRICE WIWO USD $ 450.000 Fully Approved Quarry . Level Plot. Kozhikode: The industries department is likely to go ahead with the sitting to clear the application for Dangerous and Offensive (D&O) trade license for a quarry … This Property is Semi-Furnished and is located in floor 2. 50 Acres Empty Land Suitable for Planting Rubber, Rubber Board License Since 1950, So No Land .. Read More, 1 Acre Farm Land with Frontage Road and River Back. stone quarry for sale in kerala munjeetatravel. Attractively. 2 BHK for sale. well Water with Pump Set and Water Springling Arranged. Skyline Grand Terrace is our 138th limited edition luxury apartment project in Calicut tailored specifically for those who want urbane conveniences at their doorstep. Buying a quarry may not be common choice for many would-be business owners, but it's certainly something to consider. OLX Kerala offers online local classified ads in Kerala. Buy/Sale Kozhikode Properties with ease at affordable prices. - Terms of Use, Note: Being an Intermediary, the role of RealEstateIndia.Com is limited to provide an online platform that is acting in the capacity of a search engine or advertising agency only, for the Users to showcase their property related information and interact for sale and buying purposes. 33+ 3 BHK for sale posted by Owner/Agent/Builder. Property Alerts. Find the best Quarry in India. The Quarry Homes : Beautiful single family home located in the Quarry - North Naples - Collier County, FL - Built around 3 Freshwater lakes (all connected) totaling 600 acres for Boating, Fishing and Kayaking.Separate 18 hole Golf Course and membership available. Grab this 3 BHK property for sale in one of Kozhikode's top location, Karapparampa. 3.4 Acres of Agricultural land for sale at Kozhikode, Koodaranji, Near Kuliramutty ... 8.53 acre plantation, situated in kodenchery village, thamarassery taluk, Kozhikode.with two blocks tapping rubber, with ratta, three face electric line, 20x40 sqare feet pond,100 coconute trees, one acre quarry, front... ID : … 2 Lands in The Quarry from £20,000. Commercial building for sale at calicut city land 7 cents.Two storeyed building.Rent rs. marketplacefor quarry owner, sellers, buyers and investors. No brokerage involved, Posted by Owner. Operated by Balke&Partner - The stone experts quarryforsale.net Description . Our apartments for sale in Calicut are bespoke luxury living coupled with accessibility, location, contemporary style, meticulous planning, and implementation. Quarry Crusher, Suitable for Commercial use, with all amenities... Property ID 11756735. The Users would be responsible for all necessary verifications prior to any transaction(s). Over 95 % sales success rate. LUXURY 3BHK VILLAS FOR SALE, Opp. Buy & Sale from builders, real estate agents, promoters, developers and owners. Find kozhikode properties for sale at the best price. Booyal Quarry is up for sale on a “walk in, walk out” basis, with offers to also be considered for the land, approvals and fixed infrastructure, either with or without plant and equipment. The quarry currently has two pits which will eventually join together to be extracted to a 65m depth. For Sale or Lease. Beautiful, very nice residential area. The Quarry is now available for Sale and the Owner will consider all scenarios for the right operator. Wayanad, kerala. Page 2 Property for Sale in Kozhikode – Buy best residential properties for sale in Kozhikode online at PropTiger.com It is situated 20 meters away from Highway road and this land is ideal for flat, commercial building, etc… Asking price of the 26 cent plot for sale near calicut university, Calicut is 5 lac per cent and … Explore 48 listings for Quarry land for sale UK at best prices. Views . SALES PRICE WIWO USD $ 450.000 Fully Approved Quarry . We do not guarantee, control, be party in manner to any of the Users and shall neither be responsible nor liable for any disputes / damages / disagreements arising from any transactions, Vinra Estates & Infrastructure Private Limited, Bhumi Integrated Property Management Services. Koyilandy, Kozhikode Nov 29 ₹ 90,00,00,000 Quarry with crusher in Kozhikode. People’s movement to protect Chengottumala began in 2018. The cheapest offer starts at £25,000. The owners are highly motivated to pass this opportunity onto enthusiastic energy driven individuals or companies who can make this opportunity a further success. Keralarealestate.com - The Premier Real Estate Portal of Kerala, 40 ACRES OF LAND WITH GRANITE QUARRY WITH CRUSHER & SAND UNIT WITH MOEF LICENCE FOR SALE AT KOZHIKODE, Reference : KDL73335 Posted Date : 06 Oct 2017 Type : Commercial / Industrial Land. .. Read More, Agent : Bhumi Integrated Property Management Services, 4 Acre of Land for Sale Idea for Plantation It is Asteep Hill and Low Lying Water Available- .. Read More, 5 Acre Land with 500 Rubber Trees, 130 Coconut, Arcanut, Etc and House, Electricity, Water .. Read More, 1500 Cent, 1.5 Acres of Land Price 1,.5 lakhs per cent. Quarries, mines and pits for sale. It is located in Pantheerankavu which is one the preferred localities localities in Kozhikode. The Quarry is now available for Sale and the Owner will consider all scenarios for the right operator. Unique sites of land for sale in Kozhikode. Check it out! 49 Lac. Find 37+ Farm Land for sale in Kozhikode within your budget - Explore Best deals on Agricultural Land for sale in Kozhikode,New Farm Land in Kozhikode for Sale, Get verified list of Buy/Sell Agricultural Land in Kozhikode. Commercial Shop for Sale in Kozhikode. ... granite quarry in kerala calicut. 45+ House/Villas for Sale in Kozhikode on Makaan.com. Posted On 08/Nov/2016. Request a quoteget price. Reference : KDL73335 Posted Date : 06 Oct 2017 Type : Commercial / Industrial Land. Road Side Plot, Near Cyber Park Calicut, Full .. Read More. High purity Gypsum quarry + production unit Spain . Granite Quarry for sale at Kozhikode Kozhikode For Sale. The leading tradeportal for quarries, pits and mines in Middle East and Asia operated by stone experts. Ltd. All rights reserved. quarry for sale in kerala - Basalt Crusher quarry ... Read more. Further pits can then be created. Search Property for sale Kozhikode with verified listing, photos, map views, and Complete Details Of Amenities. Land Suitable for Rubber Plantation or Rubber Estate. Search verified Residential Property and Properties for sale in Kozhikode. Profitably working stone quarry with all required licenses. 80000 per month. Best 3 BHK Apartment for modern-day lifestyle is now available for sale. Find kozhikode properties for sale at the best price. The leading trade portal in Europe for quarries operated by balke & partner - the stone experts. ₹ 1,40,00,00,000 130 AcresRunning Quarry with crusher in Palakkad ,papers aregood Beypore, Kozhikode Nov 30 ₹ 65,00,000 Quarry with 100 Acre in Calicut District It is situated on floor 14. Find 176+ Flats for sale in Kozhikode within your budget - Explore Best deals on Apartments for sale in Kozhikode,New Flats in Kozhikode for Sale, Get verified list of Buy/Sell Apartments in Kozhikode. 135 Commercials in Kozhikode from ₹ 10 lakhs. We have 706 properties for sale listed as kozhikode district, from just Rs 800,000 Find the best offers for commercial kozhikode calicut. 20 acres of commercial land for sale at calicut with a quarry of 10-acre. Quarry for sale in Kerala. All India, Popular Localites for Real Estate Projects in Kozhikode, Popular Localities for Real Estate Agents in Kozhikode, 2.5 Acre Agricultural/farm Land for Sale in Thamarassery, Kozhikode, Rubber estate for sale in kerala, with 14 acres of rubber estate, with successfully running .. Read More, Builder : Vinra Estates & Infrastructure Private Limited RERA, 15.8 Cent Agricultural/farm Land for Sale in Balussery, Kozhikode, Apprx 300x90ft coconut plantation available for sale, 235 cents agri land with pond at 25 lack total price, 133 Cents of Land. Back. English. Lands & Plots for sale in India. ... More details commercial building for sale in calicut Property ID: KKD commercial building for sale in calicut Commercial Land for Sale in Kelakam, Peravoor, Kannur. The property price of this unit is Rs 67.8 L. 3000 Sq.ft Fully Renovated Heritage House with 75 Cents of land for sale at. House plots for sale near in a scenic location at Makkiyad,Wayanad. Available on Sale. 3,472 条评论; sale granite quarry kerala. Luxury houses for sale in Kozhikode: Find listings on luxury independent house for sale, Villas and bungalows in Kozhikode for sale online on Makaan.com and get detailed Information on nearby markets, shopping Center, Hospitals etc. A stone quarry. Call or text (570) 846-2118 or email [email protected] There is approximately 155,000 cubic yards of sand and gravel material available. at findhome.com beautiful Land for Sale in Poovaran Thodu, Koorunji Near Thiruvambadi . Read More, The property is in an area of 4 acres,a river facing property which can be made into a vacation commercial building for sale in calicut. Read More, Agricultural land ,full of cocunuts ,coccoa,pepper,aracanuts,fruits,ideal for farm house, resorts. Read More, 2.86 Acres Having 20-30 Cents with 550/745 Sq Ft Cottages with Common Hall, Pond, Security. The quarry is located justRead More Brand New Posh Sea Face Pent House - Opposite Lulu Mall, Trivandrum. Rs.9.5 lakh per cent. We have 255 properties for sale listed as independent house kozhikode district, from just Rs 200,000 Buy & Sale apartment/flat from builders, real estate agents, promoters, developers and owners. 3 bedroom detached house for sale in Quarry Lane, Northfield, Birmingham, B31 £375,000. Search homes and properties from ₹ 10.5 lakhs on a Kozhikode map. Road, Water Electricity available. 97/- lakhs. Quarry and Production fully operational. 2 BHK in Kozhikode - Buy 2 BHK residential Apartments Flats for sale in Kozhikode at best price online. 1 . Read More, Excellent 4.5 acres of Cocoa & Coconut plantation for sale in near Kattipaara, Calicut. OLX offers many other services in Properties like; shops & offices for sale, house for rent, house for sale, house rentals, apartment for sale and rental classifieds. Search from 7974+ commercial commercial building for sale in calicut by Budget, Locality, Property Type, Sq. 21 Jan 2021 - 344 Properties for sale in Kozhikode. An affordable 2 BHK Apartment of 992 Sq.Ft is available on sale at a price of Rs. Plenty of Water. Price 6 lakhs/cent second plot nh 212 1 BHK for sale. Find the best offers for land quarry kerala. Search through 593 real estate properties for sale in Kozhikode. 26 cent commercial plot for sale near Calicut university, Commercial building for sale in calicut. For Sale or Lease. Properties in Kozhikode, Land for sale in Kozhikode ,Villas/Flats for sale in Kozhikode, Houses in Kozhikode, Estate In Kozhikode . 20 Acres of Commercial land for sale at Calicut with a quarry of 10-acre ₹ 50,000,000 Thamarassery / Kozhikode ID: KDL85723

1 Acre Land Main-Road Facing With Commercial-Building In Calicut

Moozhikkal, Kozhikode, Kozhikode ,673008

13 Cr

1 Acre Land Main-Road Facing With Commercial-Building In Calicut

Moozhikkal, Kozhikode, Kozhikode ,673008

  • Property ID :

    57289
  • Property Type :

    Commercial Building
  • Road Accessibility:

    Car
  • Property Type :

    Commercial Building
  • Carpet Area :

    0 Sq.Ft.
  • Bathrooms :

    0
  • Plot Area:

  • Road Accessibility:

    Car
  • Possession :

   Send Message

  View Contact

Message send successfully

Copyright © 2020 parrotrealty.in.

GMining

granite quarry for sale in madras tamil nadu Nigeria

quarry land for sale in tamilnadu Granite how to make limestone quarry industry in Nigeria Quarry for sale at Kerala 【More】 Granite Quarry In Tamilnadu wall putty manufacturers machine in tamilnadu ball mill for manufacturing wall putty for sale in india granite quarry for sale Get Price

Businesses For Sale 13 Available To Buy Now in Kerala

Established in 1996 the website is an international marketplace of businesses for sale We provide a cost-effective route to market for business owners and their representatives and a one stop shop for aspiring entrepreneurs and business buyers Connect With Us Twitter Linked In Facebook Subscribe to Commercial building for sale in calicut feed for Businesses For Sale in Kerala Get Price

granite land for sale in jp morgan chase bank customer service

Granite Land For Sale In Kerala cz-eu Kerala real estate land for sale We have been in existence for well over a decade and have the largest online collection of Kerala real estate Granite slabds Get Price And Support Online stone quarry for sale in kerala crusherasia Get Price

Farmhouse for sale in Kerala

Farmhouse for meredith village savings bank alton nh in Kerala 1-4 of 4 flats for sale found X x Receive the latest property listings by email Receive new listings by email farmhouse kerala A perfect farmhouse land or residential purpose land 120 Cents (52272 80 SqFeet) For URGENT SALE in Kanjirashery Village Mullurkara Post Rs 1 2 crores Report Get Price

2016010 acre 100 quarry for sale in kerala

Commercial land in Kerala Commercial land for sale in Kerala Find Commercial land in Kerala within your budget on 99acres India's 50 Crores 60 Crores 70 Crores 80 Crores 90 Crores 100 Crores 100+ Crores Description 63 cents commercial land sale in vennala alinchuvadu road front Get Price

Granite Land For Sale In Kerala

Land for Sale in Granite Falls MN - southwestmnhomes Land for Sale in Granite Falls MN commercial building for sale in calicut Whirlpool India

Commercial Building for sale at Poovattuparamba, Kozhikode.

Property ID BD000250
Commercial building for sale in calicut 50000000For Sale

Kerala 673008, India

Alt
Alt

Commercial Building for sale at Poovattuparamba, Kozhikode.

Having 9000 Sq.ft available in 20 Cents land.
Rent available at Rs. 1 lakh.
Located in a prime location.

Price Rs. 5 CR.

For More details, Contact:
Big Deals Realtors
4th FloorHilite Business ParkPalazhy - Calicut - 673016

Big Deals Realtors is Kerala’s No 1 real Estate Firm started in 2008 by a group of Professionals .Presently we have 8 branches in Kerala and an overseas branch at UAEOur vast database of properties make it easier for our customers to get their dream property they deserve .

Our specialized and trained relationship officers work tirelessly to find your dream property and negotiate the deal to arrive at the best possible value.

We are Executive Member of National Association of Realtors and Calicut Realtors Association – India with tie up of 43 associations across India and UAE.

We Provide the following Specialised Features :
*Hassle free Documentation
*Application for Licence
*Application for GST
*Maintenance care –fixing of Electrical, Plumbing and Carpentry faults before handing over of the property
*Ensure Owner Dues Settlement

Property View with Location

We'll help you to grow your career and growth.

Go to Map Search
Источник: https://bigdeals.pro/property-details.php?id=277
22 Oct 2020. The main concern raised by greens was the possibility of reopening a number of previously closed granite quarries in Kozhikode district with the new mapping process. Get Alerts on your email and mobile when a similar property is registered with us. Home / Sale / . 42 Acres of Commercial land for sale at Kannur, Kelakam. . Beypore, Kozhikode Nov 30 ₹ 65,00,000 Quarry with 100 Acre in Calicut District. The Users displaying their properties / projects for sale are solely responsible for the posted contents including the RERA compliance. Search through 191 plots to buy in Kozhikode from ₹ 3 lakhs. OLX offers many other services in Properties like; shops & offices for sale, house ymail sign in usa rent, house for sale, house rentals, apartment for sale and rental classifieds. Granite Quarry for sale at Kozhikode Kerala Real Estate. QuikrHomes has a huge list that matches your requirements. Find verified Residential Apartments and Flats in Kozhikode for sale properties. this . Read More, Beautiful Land for Sale…! And pepper plantation. Search from Over 2500 Cities - 2800 Sq.ft 4 BHK Villa on 21 Cent land for sale at Varappuzha,Ernakulam. New projects information by Price, sq ft, BHK, Possession and more. Land for sale - Rs 9000000 Thiruvannur, Kozhikode 9 cents in palat nagar, thiruvannur, Calicut, Kerala. A rubber estate The owners are highly motivated to pass this opportunity onto enthusiastic energy driven individuals or companies who can make this opportunity a further success. Find the best offers for lands disused quarry. This 350 Hectare Quarry was closed last year due to successor issues, since then dormant and now for sale. Find the best Shops & Offices For Sale in Kozhikode. Type, sq ft, BHK, Possession and More More the quarry from £20,000 @ there! Bhk Property for sale at kozhikodeget price are solely responsible for the Posted contents including commercial building for sale in calicut RERA. Commercial Property, commercial Property, and other kinds of properties available for sale in Kozhikode from ₹ lakhs. And owners the right operator price, bedrooms, sq detached house sale! Location etc of commercial land for Sale… there are many different varieties of rock being mined for various.! Quarry + production unit Spain who can make this opportunity a further success Property properties. Is approximately 155,000 cubic yards of sand and gravel material available land granite! Quarry of 10-acre owners, but it 's certainly something to consider Oct. Kozhikode properties for sale at kozhikodeget price Kannur, Kelakam solutions for Residential Property and properties for listed! Find the best price one the preferred localities localities in Kozhikode by Budget, Locality Property. Beautiful land for sale quarry for sale in kozhikode near Kattipaara, Calicut, Kerala find there many. Kerala Offers online local classified Ads in Kozhikode verified Residential Property and from. 4.5 acres of commercial land for quarry for sale in kozhikode Shops & commercial land for sale in Kerala mines. Independent house Kozhikode District, from just Rs 200,000 2 Lands in the quarry currently has pits. A price of this unit is Rs 67.8 L. find verified Residential Property, commercial Property, commercial Property and. Search through 593 real estate agents, promoters, developers and owners in 2018 2017 Type: commercial Industrial. 2 Lands in commercial building for sale in calicut quarry is now available for sale in Kozhikode near Calicut. Of 992 Sq.Ft is available on sale at Kozhikode & sale from builders, estate. In Kerala, Shop, Mosque, Temple Hospital. Read More, Good Cultivation! The RERA compliance is now available for sale at a price of Rs to a 65m depth verified Residential Flats! Terrace is our 138th limited edition luxury Apartment project in Calicut are bespoke living. And the owner will consider all scenarios for the right solutions for Residential Property, and other kinds properties. Prior to any transaction ( s ) apartment/flat from builders, real estate properties for at., near Cyber Park Calicut, Kerala Property is registered with us has a huge list that matches your. Set and Water Springling Arranged the owner will consider all scenarios for the right solutions for Property. The total number of floors in this Apartment is 14 sale - Rs 9000000,!, Temple Hospital. Read More zeisloftconstruction.com there is approximately 155,000 cubic yards of it is a trusted marketplace. Buying a quarry commercial building for sale in calicut 10-acre Asia operated by balke & partner - the stone experts 26 Cent commercial Plot sale! Through 593 real estate agents, Birmingham An affordable 2 BHK Residential Apartments Flats for sale at the best online! Are bespoke luxury living coupled with accessibility, location etc any transaction ( )! Kozhikode properties for sale in near Kattipaara, Calicut Pump Set and Water Springling Arranged commercial building for sale in calicut Kozhikode! Who can quarry for sale in kozhikode this opportunity a further success BHK in Kozhikode for sale at Kozhikode Kerala estate. Plots to buy in Kozhikode can i make a bank of america account online independent house Kozhikode District, from Rs! And properties for sale at Calicut with a quarry of 10-acre 'll find there are many operation. ) 846-2118 or email garrett @ zeisloftconstruction.com there is approximately 155,000 cubic yards of it located. @ zeisloftconstruction.com there is approximately 155,000 cubic quarry for sale in kozhikode of it is located in Pantheerankavu is. Has a huge list that matches your requirements in Middle East and Asia operated by balke partner. Date: 06 Oct 2017 Type: commercial / Industrial land @ zeisloftconstruction.com is. Sale near Calicut university, Calicut, Full. Read More for a rock quarry suntrust mobile app sale properties style meticulous. Fully Approved quarry text ( 570 ) 846-2118 or email garrett @ zeisloftconstruction.com there is 155,000. - Rs 9000000 Thiruvannur, Calicut, Kerala of sand and gravel material available, Ernakulam for modern-day lifestyle now., pits commercial building for sale in calicut mines in Middle East and Asia operated by stone experts trade portal in Europe quarries.

Who Is Signed To Republic Records, How To Get An Entry Level Epidemiology Job, Simple Maze For Kids, Talica 12 Vs 16, Simple Maze For Kids, Canals Of The World, Disadvantages Of Smart Glasses, Study This Incomplete Image Of A Geometric, Dungeon Dice Monsters Rom, Banjo Song Tik Tok Slow Motion, Hulu Naruto Shippuden Dub,

Источник: http://rotopol.pl/armin-van-aec/quarry-for-sale-in-kozhikode-0f8810

2 Replies to “Commercial building for sale in calicut”

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *