is real estate tangible property

This chapter explains that 1) property is categorized or real property or personal property, 2) some tangible property can transition between the two. Tangible Personal Property is everything that is not real estate (land, buildings and improvements). It includes furniture, fixtures, tools. Tangible personal property is physical property that can be touched, such as furniture, clothing, and vehicles. It's distinct from the other major class of.

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Real Estate as a tangible asset

Property is any tangible or intangible physical item, design, creative work, or concept that is owned. 

What is Tangible Property?

Tangible refers to physical property. That is, tangible property is anything that can be physically touched. 

What is  Intangible Property?

Intangible property refers to non-physical property. That is, intangible property is any property that cannot be physically touched.

  • Example: Intangible is real estate tangible property includes patents, trademarks, trade secrets, copyrights, debts, and company good will.

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Discussion Question

Do you think that there should be a distinction between tangible and intangible property? Why or why not? Should they be afforded the exact same protections? For example, is theft of a copyrighted song the same as stealing someone's wallet? Why or why not?

Practice Question

Austin purchases a book of photography. Has he purchased tangible or intangible property? 

  • Tangible personal property has physical substance and can be touched, held and felt. Examples include furniture, cars, baseball cards, comic books, jewelry and art. Intangible personal property includes assets are the opposite of that. Examples include bank account, stocks, bonds, insurance policies and retirement benefit accounts. In the example of the book, Austin has bought a tangible property.

Academic Research

  • Easton, Peter D., Discussion of Revalued Financial, Tangible, and Intangible Assets: Association with Share Prices and Non Market-Based Value Estimates. Journal of Accounting Research, Supplement 1998. Available at SSRN:
  • Field, Thomas G., Crimes Involving Intangible Property (December 11, 2012). 11 University of New Hampshire Law Review 171 (2013). Available at SSRN: or
  • Epstein, Richard A., What Is So Special about Intangible Property? The Case for Intelligent Carryovers (August 16, 2010). U of Chicago Law & Economics, Olin Working Paper No. 524; NYU Law and Economics Research Paper No. 10-49. Available at SSRN: or
  • Arezzo, Emanuela, Struggling Around the Natural Divide: The Protection of Tangible and Intangible Indigenous Property. Duke Law School Legal Studies Paper No. 126; Cardozo Arts & Entertainment Law Journal, Vol. 25, No. 1, 2007. Available at SSRN: or
  • Alton, Kelly E. and Borden, Bradley T., Section 1031 Alchemy: Transforming Personal Tangible and Intangible Property into Real Property. Available at SSRN:
  • Teece, David J., Intangible Assets and a Theory of Heterogeneous Firms (September 28, 2016). Forthcoming chapter for A. Bounfour and T. Miyagawa (eds.), Intangibles, Market Failure and Innovation Performance. New York: Springer (2015). Available at SSRN: or
  • Salvioni, Daniela, Intangible Assets and Internal Controls in Global Companies. Symphonya. Emerging Issues in Management, n. 2, 2010, pp. 39-51. Available at SSRN:

tangible propertyintangible property

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State Tax Commission Definitions

Ad Valorem Tax – Ad Valorem taxes are taxes that are based on the value of property. These are commonly known as property taxes.

Agricultural/Horticultural Land Grades – Agricultural/Horticultural Land is divided into eight grades based on its productive use value. Grade 1 is the best land, grade 8 is the poorest. 12 CSR 30-4.010

Appraised Value – The appraised value is an estimation of the true value in money of residential, commercial or utility property, or the productive or market value of agricultural property.

Assessed Value – The assessed value is the portion of the true value in money on which taxes are based. In Missouri, the assessed value of property may not exceed 33.3 percent of its true value in money. For real property, residential property is assessed at 19 percent of its true value in money; agricultural/horticultural property is assessed at 12 percent of its productive or market value; and all other property is assessed at 32 percent of its true value in money. Most personal property is assessed at 33.3 percent of its true value in money.

Assessment Date or Tax Date – January 1st of is real estate tangible property year. Real property is assessed as of January 1st of each odd-numbered year. That same value will be used for the following even-numbered year, unless there has been new construction and improvement to the property. Personal property is assessed as of January 1st of each year.

In counties that adopt the Occupancy Law, newly constructed residential real property may be assessed for a portion of the year on a pro-rata basis, commencing upon the day the home is occupied. For example, if a family moves into a new home on April 1, the assessor assesses the home and the owner is taxed on 75% (eight of twelve months) of the value of the real estate for that year.

Assessor – The county official charged with determining the market value and classification of property for tax purposes.

Assessment Jurisdiction – The assessment jurisdiction is the county in which the subject property is located. The City of St. Louis is a separate assessment jurisdiction.

Board of Equalization – This board hears taxpayer complaints, reviews the assessments, and issues decisions either affirming or adjusting the assessments returned by the assessor. The City of St. Louis also has a Board of Merchants’ and Manufacturers’ Tax Equalization which performs the same equalization duties as the Board of Equalization for manufacturers’ assessments. Any reference to the county Board of Equalization in this web page shall also encompass the City of St. Louis Board of Merchants’ and Manufacturers’ Tax Equalization.

Classification– For property tax purposes, property is divided into three classes: (1) real property; (2) tangible personal property; and (3) intangible personal property. Real property is subclassified as (1) residential, (2) agricultural/horticultural, and (3) utility, industrial, commercial, railroad, 64 f to celsius all other. Property must be assessed uniformly within its own class or subclass.

Commission – The State Tax Commission of Missouri. There are three individuals appointed by the Governor to serve as Commissioners.

Complainant – The Complainant is the taxpayer or his representative bringing an appeal before the Commission.

Complaint For Review Of Assessment Wilson bank and trust mortgage form on which the taxpayer files an appeal to the Commission. It is the pleading to begin the process

Evidentiary Hearing – The trial of an appeal. The time when both parties present evidence to support their position in the case being heard. The taxpayer’s day in court.

Improvements – Improvements are buildings, additions to buildings, sidewalks, parking lots, wells and other permanently attached additions to land which, under the two year assessment cycle, may either increase or decrease the value of the property.

Intangible Personal Property – Intangible personal property includes such things as stocks, bonds, notes, and patents.

Personal Property – Tangible property that is not real property. This includes automobiles, trucks, farm implements, boats, office equipment, machinery and equipment.

Prehearing Conference – An informal meeting between the parties and a Hearing Officer to discuss the issues in a case.

Productive Use Value – The value which land has for agricultural/horticultural use. The value is established by the Agricultural/Horticultural Land Grades.

Real Property – Real property includes the land itself and all growing crops, buildings, structures, improvements and fixtures on the land. It also includes all rights and privileges belonging or related to the land.

Respondent – The Respondent is the assessor of the county where the property was assessed. In the City of St. Louis, the Respondent is the assessor of the City of St. Louis.

Settlement – An agreement reached through negotiation by the Complainant and Respondent in a tax appeal.

Subject Property – The subject property is the property under appeal.

Subject Tax Day – The subject tax day is January 1st of the year in which the disputed assessments were made.

Tangible Personal Property – Tangible personal property includes such things as automobiles, farm implements and boats which are movable and are not permanently attached to the land.

Transcript – A written record of the testimony at the Evidentiary Hearing.

True Value in Money – The true value in money is the price the property would bring after a reasonable exposure to the open market when offered for sale by a person who is willing but not obligated to sell it, and is bought by a person who is willing to purchase it but who is not forced to do so. The fair market value of the property. The true value in money of agricultural/horticultural land in actual use is defined as its productive use value. The true value in money of agricultural or horticultural land that is vacant and unused is its fair market value.

Witness – An individual who is called to testify at the Evidentiary Hearing.


Tangible Personal Property Department

Tangible personal property (TPP) is defined in Section 192.001, F.S. as "all goods, chattels and other articles of value (but does not include.vehicular items.) capable of manual possession and whose chief value is intrinsic to the article itself." TPP is everything is real estate tangible property other than real estate that has value by itself and includes such things as furniture, fixtures, tools, machinery, household appliances, signs, equipment, leasehold improvements, supplies, leased equipment and any other equipment used in a business or to earn income. It does not include motor vehicles, mobile homes, inventory, livestock, boats or airplanes.

  • File the original return from this office as soon as possible before April 1. Be sure to sign and date your return.
  • Work with your accountant or C.P.A. to identify any equipment that may have been "physically removed." List those items in the appropriate space on your return. is real estate tangible property
  • If you have an asset listing or depreciation schedule that identifies each item of equipment, attach it to the completed return.
  • Do not use vague terms such as "various" or "same as last year."
  • It is to your advantage to provide a breakdown of assets since depreciation on each item may vary.
  • Please include your estimate of fair market value and the original cost of the item on your return. These are important considerations in determining an accurate assessment.
  • Look for additional information concerning filing within the instructional section of the return itself.

If you sell your business, go out of business, or move to a new location, please inform your property appraiser office promptly. This helps to ensure timely, accurate records.

Anyone in possession of assets best buy phone number to pay credit card January 1 who has either a proprietorship, partnership, corporation or is a self-employed agent or contractor, must file each year. Property owners who lease, lend or rent property must also file a return.

Section 193.052, Florida Statutes, requires that all tangible personal property be reported each year to the Property Appraiser's office. Failure to submit receive a personal property tax return the property appraiser does not relieve you of your obligation to file.

Even if you feel you have nothing to report, complete the is real estate tangible property return form, attach an explanation about why nothing was reported, and file it with the property appraiser's office. Almost all businesses and rental units have some assets to report, even if it is only supplies, rented equipment, or household goods.

Yes. If you were in business on January 1 of the tax year, indicate the date you went out of business, the manner in which you disposed of your business assets and the name and address of the recipient of the assets on your return. If you still have the assets, you must file on these items. Sign and date the return and file it with the property appraiser's office.

Whether fully depreciated in your accounting records or not, is real estate tangible property all property still in use or in your possession should be reported.

Yes. There is an area on the return specifically for those assets. Even though the assets are assessed to the owner, they must be listed for informational purposes.

No. There is no minimum value. A personal property tax return must be filed on all assets by April 1. However, if the resulting property taxes amount to less than $5.00, you will not receive a tax bill.

The deadline for filing a timely return is April 1. After that date, state law provides that penalties be applied at 5% per month or portion of a month that the return is late., up to a maximum of 25% penalty when no return is filed.

The owner as of January 1 is responsible for the taxes for that year.  Most title companies do not do a search of the tangible assets of a business, therefore, you should consult your broker, attorney or closing agent to insure your proper protection.

When a tax return is not filed by April 1, the property appraiser is required to place an assessment on the property. This assessment represents an estimate based upon the value of businesses with similar equipment and assets. Being assessed does not alleviate you of your responsibility to file an accurate return.

In mid-August, the owner of record will receive a notice of proposed property tax covering TPP. If you disagree with your assessment, call your property appraiser or go to the office to discuss the matter. If you have is real estate tangible property evidence that the appraised value is more than the actual fair market value of your property, the property appraiser will welcome the opportunity to review all the pertinent facts. If you do not agree after talking, then you may file a petition to have the matter reviewed by the Value Adjustment Board, an independent reviewing authority. Should you not agree with the VAB, then you may file suit to have the assessment reviewed in court.


Preparing a Will enables you to direct how and to whom your estate will be distributed once you’re gone.  Your estate is comprised of your

  1. intangible personal property (including cash, IRA’s, 401Ks, bank accounts, insurance policies, etc.),
  2. real estate, and
  3. “tangible personal property.”

Many times people wish to be very specific regarding how their tangible personal property will be distributed among beneficiaries.  One option is to itemize such specific bequests in a Will.  Under New Jersey law, however, an individual may itemize some or all of his/her tangible personal property in a separate written statement or list, specifying exactly who should receive what.  This list may be revised by the testator (the person bequeathing his/her estate) as often as desired during his/her lifetime, and does not require an attorney, witnesses, or notarization.  So for example, while a parent may state in her Will that her estate should be equally divided between her two children, she may attach a statement specifying that

– the gold watch goes to her daughter and the stamp collection goes to her son.


– her pearls go to her favorite niece, Alice.

The is real estate tangible property tangible personal property is generally understood to mean items that can be felt or touched.  Typical items include clothing, jewelry, art, musical instruments, writings, furnishings and other household goods.  Often, these items are of relatively little monetary value, but of great sentimental worth.  It is important to remember that if you are preparing a separate statement or list, it may only serve to distribute tangible personal property, not cash, securities, negotiable interests or services.

Sometimes, however, it isn’t clear whether or not an item falls under the definition of tangible personal property.   For example, is a collection of gold Krugerrand coins considered cash or tangible person property?  These coins are minted by the Republic of South Africa, and each coin contains exactly one ounce of gold.  Given the potential for error, it’s best to consult with an attorney.  If it’s determined to be cash, then the collection should be bequeathed through the Will, which you must sign along with two witnesses, and which must be notarized.  If it’s deemed to be tangible personal property, then you can just gift it via a separate list, without the need for witnesses or a notary.  And, you can change your mind about who will receive the coins as often is real estate tangible property you like.  Just redo the list.

When doing your estate planning, you want to feel confident that the items you bequeath to specific people on a separate list are, in fact, tangible personal property.  You don’t want your bequests to result in disputes among your heirs or in court proceedings because the items were not gifted in a legally correct manner.  

Getting Legal Help:

Experienced Estate Planning Attorney, Elga A. Goodman, can help you with all your estate planning needs.  Contact us today at 973-841-5111.

Posted in: Estate Administration, Estate Planning, Probate, Wills


Legal Words of the Day: Tangible Property & Intangible Property

When most people use the word “property,” they typically mean real estate or land, such as: “She owns 50 acres of property in Harrison County.” But, for estate planners, the word property has a much broader meaning. For estate planners, property is what we lawyers call a “term of art.” A term of art is a word or phrase that has a specialized, specific meaning within a particular field (such as the legal profession). Terms of art are abundant in the law; other legal terms of art you may have heard of include “double jeopardy,” “burden of proof,” and “punitive damages.”

bookcase with ladder

Two Broad Classifications

There are two broad classifications of property—real property and personal property. Real property includes land and whatever is built on the land or attached to it. It includes buildings (like houses and grain silos), fences, tile lines, and mineral rights, for example.

Personal property is best described by what it is NOT. Anything and everything that is not real property, is then personal property. It can be easiest to think of this in terms of movability. Typically real property cannot be picked up and moved. Yes, you could dig up dirt from your plot of land and move it to your neighbor’s plot of land, but you cannot actually “move” the land.  And, sure, you could argue that you could move a shed from one corner of the yard to another, but not easily.

To drive this point home, let’s think about that shed. Let’s say I want to build a shed. The lumber, tools, and paint I brought to the site to build the shed are personal property; the shed itself is real property.

Intangible and Tangible Property

Personal property is broken down into tangible property and intangible property. Tangible personal property has physical substance and can be touched, held, and felt. Examples of tangible personal property are numerous, just a few examples are furniture, vehicles, baseball cards, cars, comic books, jewelry, and art.

Intangible personal property includes assets such as bank accounts, stocks, bonds, insurance policies, and retirement benefit accounts.

Pop Quiz!

Can you classify the following as real property, tangible personal property, or intangible personal property?

Your Twitter account.

This is intangible personal property. Yes, your social media presence and digital accounts are intangible property. (Don’t forget to account for this property in your estate plan!)

Your IRA.

Again, this is intangible property.

Farmland, including its silos and fences.

Real property.

Your comic book collection.

Tangible property!

MacBook Air laptop computer.

Your computer is tangible property. But, it may contain intangible property which could well have monetary value, such as a document containing a recipe you wrote on how to bake a better apple pie, or a software you programmed.

This quiz, and overall discussion about property, sparks a big question…

What Happens to Your Property When You Die?

When you die, what happens to your property depends in large part on whether you have a will (as a part of a complete estate plan) or not. If you have a will, then your property will pass to your beneficiaries just as you intended. An exception: some intangible personal property, such as retirement and bank accounts, have beneficiary designations. Such property will pass to its intended beneficiary without a will. (Don’t forget a beneficiary designation trumps what’s written in a will, if there is any discrepancy between the two.)

If you die without a will, you are leaving it up to the Iowa intestacy laws to decide who will receive your property. Decisions as to who of your heirs at law receive your property will be made without any regard as to what you may have wanted, or may have not wanted, if you would have had a say in the matter. Long story short, it’s a good idea to put an end to the excuses and enlist a qualified estate planner to draft your personalized, quality estate plan.

Whether it’s real or personal, tangible, or intangible, act now to protect and prepare your property for the future. Get an estate plan. You can reach me most easily by email at [email protected] or call my cell, 515-371-6077. Don’t delay—write or call today.

/by Gordon FischerTags:beneficiaries, beneficiary designations, Estate plan, intangible property, personal property, real property, tangible property, willИсточник:

Generally, items remain personal property if they can be removed without damage to the real estate or to the item itself. Machinery bolted to the floor to prevent movement while in operation would remain personal property. If the machinery were built into the building in such a manner that its removal would produce considerable damage to the building, it would be part of the real estate.

All individuals and business entities who own, lease, or have a beneficial interest in taxable, tangible property located within Kentucky on January 1 must file a tangible property tax return. All tangible property is taxable, except the following:

  • Personal household goods used in the home
  • Crops grown in the year which the assessment is made and in the hands of the producer.
  • Tangible personal property owned by institutions exempted under Section 170 of the Kentucky Constitution.


The taxable situs of tangible personal property in Kentucky are the Counties where the property is physically located.

Another way to define tangible personal property is that it is every physical item subject to ownership except real and intangible property.

Tangible Property Filing Requirements

  • Kentucky does not allow consolidated and joint returns.
  • Owners need to file a return for each property location within Kentucky.
  • The return must include the property location by street address and county. A post office box is not acceptable as the property address.
  • File the return between January 1 and May 15.
  • Do not enclose the tangible return with the income tax return.
  • File the return with the PVA in the county of taxable situs or with the Division of State Valuation.
  • There is no extension for this return.
  • Do not send payments with your return. The Sheriff in each county mails the tax bills. Returns filed after May 15 are considered omitted and will be billed by the Division of State Valuation.


1Who must file a return?

  • Businesses: Any business owner or self-employed contractor owning tangible personal property on January 1st must file a return each year as required by Florida Statutes 193.052 and 193.062. Property owners that loan, lease or rent tangible property to others must also report such property.
  • Mobile Home Owners: Owners of mobile homes located on leased land must report attachments such as garages, porches, patios, storage sheds, etc. in the first year of ownership. For following years, the property will remain on the assessment roll as originally reported but no additional return form is required unless those items previously reported change. Changes found by Property Appraiser personnel field inspections will also be reflected in subsequent returns.
  • Rental Unit Owners: Furniture and fixtures in rental condominiums and apartments must be reported.

2Why must a return be filed?

Florida Statutes require that all TPP be reported to the Property Appraiser’s Office annually. It is the duty of the Property Appraiser to assess all tangible personal property in St. Johns County. To facilitate this process, return forms are mailed to all taxpayers determined by this office to have property to report. If you receive a return form and feel that the form does not apply to you, return it with an explanation so that we can properly review your situation and, if necessary, remove you from the TPP roll. All forms should be returned.

3Are there any exemptions?

In 2008 voters enacted Amendment 1 which created a $25,000 Tangible Personal Property Exemption. In order to receive the exemption, you must file a tangible Personal Property Tax Return. The return serves as your application for the exemption.

5What about old fully depreciated equipment that is no longer on my books?

All property in your possession on January 1st must be reported even if fully depreciated on the books for accounting purposes. As prescribed by state law governing the ad valorem appraisal process, tangible personal property is real estate tangible property allowed depreciation over time but as long as it is being used in an income-producing venture, it never depreciates to a zero value. Additionally, property that has been expensed under IRS Section 179 must be reported.

6Am I required to report supplies used in my business?

Yes. All supplies used in the business, but not for sale to the public, should be reported. Examples are office supplies, tools and dyes, restaurant supplies, brochures and other consumables.

7Must I report leased, rented, or borrowed assets?

Yes. There is a section on page two of the return form specifically for such items. These assets are normally assessed to their owner, unless capitalized by the lessee, however, you should list the name, address and other required information of the person or firm from whom you lease the equipment.

8if I rent my furnished home or condo during the year, do I have to file a TPP Return?

Yes. You should report household furnishings such as furniture, window treatments, fans, art work, bedding, and appliances (excluding refrigerator, dishwasher, water heater and range/oven).

9If I own my mobile home but don't own the land on which it sits, what am I required to report?

If your mobile home has a garage, screened or glassed patio, storage shed, deck or similar improvement, you must report the measurement of the item and the original cost (if known) (Ex: garage 20x20, cost $10,000).

10What happens if I do not file my Tangible Property Return?

The Property Appraiser’s Office is required to place an assessed value on all tangible personal property regardless of whether or not a tax return is filed (F.S. 193.073). In the absence of owner input, they will be forced to estimate a value based on the best available information. Additionally, per statute, a penalty of 25% will be applied for failure to file and you waive your right to a Value Adjustment Board appeal (see below).

11I am no longer in business but received a TPP form, what should I do?

All return forms should be filed with the Property Appraiser’s Office. If you were not in business on January 1st of the tax year, please indicate on the form the date you went out of business, the manner in which the assets were disposed of, sign and date the return form, and send it to their office. If the business was sold, provide the name of the new owner, date sold, and how the assets were disposed of.

12Is my assessment pro-rated if I sell or close my business during the year?

No. Property is assessed to the owner as of January 1st of each year.

13What if I do not agree with the assessed value in the Notice of Proposed Taxes (TRIM) that I receive?

Pursuant to F.S. 194.011, you are encouraged to is real estate tangible property or visit the Property Appraiser’s office to discuss your assessment, providing any information you have to support your position BY THE DEADLINE PERIOD STATED ON THE TRIM NOTICE. If you and the Property Appraiser continue to disagree with the assessed value after discussion, you may file a petition BY THE DEADLINE PERIOD STATED ON THE TRIM NOTICEto be heard by the Value Adjustment Board. If you do not file a petition by the deadline, you waive your right to such an appeal. Additionally, in order for the Value Adjustment Board to consider your appeal, you must have filed a return (F.S. 194.034).

14Can I get an extension beyond the April 1st filing deadline?

Yes. Florida Statute 193.063 provides that an extension is real estate tangible property up to 30 days may be granted by the Property Appraiser. The extension request must be made in writing prior to the normal filing deadline. The name and tax parcel number must be stated in the request. At the discretion of the Property Appraiser, an additional 15-day extension beyond that 30 days may be granted upon written request explaining why the additional time is needed.

15Additional Tangible Personal Property Filing Tips

  • The original DR405 form contains your parcel number and a bar code. Please use this form to file your return, or attach it to your computer prepared form.
  • Please provide the physical address where the property is located, and indicate if address has changed.
  • Attach a list of assets or your depreciation schedule.
  • Indicate any assets physically removed or added prior to January 1st.
  • Please sign and date form, and provide a telephone number.
  • Economic lives differ for various assets, so the more detail provided with the return, the more accurate they can be in the application of depreciation factors.
is real estate tangible property

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